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Flashcards in SIDE EFFECTS Deck (50):
1

pyrazinamide

hepatotoxicity

1

oseltamivir

bronchitis

nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

1

boceprevir

anemia, neutropenia

clashes w drugs that are CYP3A substrates or inducers

3

triazoles (fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole)

CYP450 INHIBITOR (they inhibit 14alpha-sterol demethylase, a Cyto P450)

4

isoniazid

hepatotoxicity

peripheral neuritis

4

fidaxomicin

GI upset

GI bleeding

5

voriconazole

visual disturbances & photosensitive rash

5

lamivudine

well tolerated

nausea, diarrhea

rash, pancreatitis, cough

6

as far as side effects, what is different about aztreonam compared to all other bolded drugs that target PBPs?

does NOT have risk for penicillin hypersensitivities

7

penicillins

allergic hypersensitivity

7

tetracyclines

(doxycycline, minocycline)

photosensitive rash

teeth discoloration (fetus, children)

enterocolitis

binds Ca and Mg (affects drug absorption)

8

linezolid

MAO inhibitor, bone marrow suppression

9

quinolones

(norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin)

nerves (seizures, peripheral neuropathy)

arthropathy, tendon rupture, cartilage damage in children

10

famciclovir

similar to acyclovir

well tolerated

rash, nausea, vomiting, headache, fatique

10

enfuvirtide

local injection site reaction

diarrhea, nausea

fatigue

12

Griseofulvin

penicillin allergies, CYP INDUCER

13

maraviroc

GI upset

fever/rash

dark urine

14

rifampin

multiple CYP inducer

hepatotoxicity

orange-red color secretions

14

vancomycin

red neck/man syndrome

nephrotoxcitiy

phlebitis

ototoxicity

15

streptomycin

ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity

16

interferon-a

flu-like syndrome, bone marrow suppression

neurotoxicity

myalgia

17

emtricitabine

headache, diarrhea, nausea

hyperpigmentation of skin

17

zidovudine

bone marrow suppression

hematologic toxicity increases with drugs that inhibit glucuronyl transferases (APAP, probenecid, aspirin)

myopathy with prolonged use

18

flucytosine

leukopenia, thrombocytopenia

20

amphotericin b

renal toxicity

21

metronidazole

leukopenia, neutropenia

thrombophlebitis (IV infusion)

superinfections, disulfiram-like reaction

22

TMP/SMX

hypersensitivity rashes, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

bone marrow suppression, Megaloblastic anemia

23

ritonavir

avoid other drugs metabolized by CYP3A

diabetes, alterations in lipid metabolism, fat redistribution, alters metabolism of many other drugs (like lopinavir)

24

ethambutol

optic neuritis (decreased visual acuity, cannot see red vs green)

26

macrolides

(erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin)

CYP3A4 inhibitor, doubles risk of cardiac arrest

increases GI motility

27

efavirenz

rash, CNS/psychotic symptoms

nightmares

29

aminoglycosides

(tobramycin, gentamicin, amikacin)

nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity

30

lopinavir

diabetes, alterations in lipid metabolism

fat redistribution

alters metabolism of many other drugs

31

nitrofurantoin

peripheral neuropathy

bone marrow suppression (targeting of DNA synthesis --> potential SE against cells with rapid turnover)

acute hemolytic anemia in patients with G6PD deficiency (these pts are susceptible to oxidant/stress damage)

32

cephalosporins

allergic hypersensitivity (between 1-20% cross reactivity with PCN allergy)

33

raltegravir

well tolerated

CK elevation (rhabdomyolysi)

nausea, diarrhea

headache, fever

34

ganciclovir

bone marrow suppression, enhanced when given with AZT

abormal liver function

35

foscarnet

renal damage (enhanced by amphotericin B)

electrolyte imbalances (binds Ca2+ and Mg2+, seizures)

36

imipenem

if prescribed alone, proximal renal tubular brush border metabolizes drug --> risk of kidney damage

 

FIX: prescribe cilastatin to inhibit the renal dehydropeptidase enzyme that metabolizes imipenem

38

tenofovir

GI upset

40

polymyxin b

nephrotoxic & neurotoxic (when used systemically - typically topical application)

41

nystatin

really bad taste

43

amantadine

CNS - headache, anxiety, slurred speech

confusion

cautin in seizure pt's

44

penciclovir

skin irritation

rash

45

abacavir

hypersensitivity reaction associated with HLA-B*5701 antigen

46

acyclovir

well tolerated

rash, fatigue

nausea, vomiting, headache

47

ribavirin

aerosol: clog equipment, decrease pulmonary function, rash

IV/oral: anemia, bone marrow suppression

48

trifluridine

burning, stinging, hypersensitivity

49

chloramphenicol

bone marrow depression

optic neuritis & blindness

Grey Baby Syndrome - UDP glucuronyl transferase system is immature in premature infants and cannot metabolize drug effectively (causes: vomiting, ashen grey skin color, limp body tone, hypothermia, hypotension, CV collapse, cyanosis)

50

daptomycin

muscle pain/weakness