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Flashcards in Sievert Chest Deck (56):
1

What is the plane that cut the body into left and right?
Top and bottom?
Front and back?

1) sagittal
2) Axial (transverse)
3) coronal

2

What axis would we have to move around in order to facilitate movement of the upper limb in the coronal plane?
The sagittal plane?
The axial plane?

1) AP axis
2) transverse
3) vertical

3

What are the 3 types of joints?

1) synovial (most common)
2) fibrous
3) cartilaginous

4

In synovial joints, opposing surfaces of adjacent bones are lined with (blank).

articular cartilage

5

Examples of Fibrous joints...

Sutures or the interosseus membrane

6

Examples of Cartilaginous joints

epiphyseal plates where they permit growth in length of long bones or intervertebral discs where fibrocartilage provides shock absorption and strength.

7

Most common thing you will encounter is (blank).

fascia

8

Layers of superficial skin are

Epidermis, dermis, superficial fascia, deep fascia, skeletal muscle

9

Connection btn dermis and investing fascia
Differing amounts of strength ie hand, eye lid vs. palm of hand

reticulum cutis

10

What entities are found in the Superficial Fascia?

Blood vessels, small nerve fibers, receptors found here
comprised mostly of fat
Contains glandular portion of sweat glands and base of hair follicles.

11

Ligaments in the superficial fascia binds the (Blank) to underlying (Blank).

1) skin (dermis and epidermis)
2) deep fascia (retinacula cutis).

12

Dense (investing) fascia is comprised of (blank) and connected to the dermis by (blank).

1) Dense irregular connective tissue
2) attached to the skin by the ligaments in the superficial fascia (retinacula cutis)

13

Deep fascia is sandwiched between what 2 layers?

1) Skeletal muscle
2) superficial fascia
Bind to bone (periosteum)
Nerve (epineurium)

14

The deep fascia creates (blank) to prevent the spread of infection or disease.

Create compartments that envelope groups of muscles

15

Diaphragm completely separates the (blank) from the (Blank) and is significantly domed superiorly.

thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity

16

Rib cage opens...

1) Thoracic outlet above 1st rib (Superior thoracic aperture)
2) Open inferiorly between 7-12 ribs (Interior thoracic aperture)

17

Intercostal muscles
Where do they stop and start?


1) External (hands in pockets)
a. Starts posterior and stops anterior
2) Internal (opposite of external)
a. Starts at front but doesn't go all the way to the back
3) Innermost (up and down)
a. Shortest
b. Straight up and down
None of these layers go all the way around the torso

18

Nerve coming out of second intercostal space

Intercostal brachial nerve; contributes to chest wall and medial side of the arm; pain of the upper limb in MI

19

Three parts of the sternum and the lines separating them are...

Manubrium --> manubrial-sternal junction = Angle of Louie (5th vertebra)
Sternum
Xiphisternal joint (9th vertebra) ---> Zyphoid process

20

Space created btn lateral chest wall and diaphragm

costal diaphragmatic recess (Xray)

21

Where the diaphragm is during respiration...

On exhalation: Diaph can go up to 4th rib
Passive: 5-6 rib
Deep Inhalation will go further (8-10?)

22

Nipple line is approximately the (blank) rib.

4th rib

23

How many pairs of ribs are there?
True? False? Floating?

There are 12 pairs of ribs:
1-7 true ribs
8-10 false ribs
11 and 12 floating ribs

24

What is the definition of a typical rib?

Typical ribs have a head with 2 articular facets, a neck, a tubercle, an angle (fracture) and a body. Ribs 3-9.

25

Rib 1

It is the broadest with a more horizontal position, has only one facet on the head, and does not have a synovial joint where its cartilage articulates with the manubrial portion of the sternum. Also, generally not considered to be palpable.

26

coastal chondritis

inflammation of where rib attaches to sternum

27

Transverse costal facet for tubercle

Ribs 2-9 attach to the transverse costal facet of the vertebra with the same number as the rib.

28

The body of the rib houses...

Body with groove for neuromuscular bundle
Houses intercostal vein/ artery/ nerve ( hangs a little below)

29

(Blank) lines generally just medial to the nipple

Midclavicular

30

The midaxillary lines run

Through the armpit

31

A line that runs down the scapula...

Scapular or paravertebral lines

32

(Blank) growth of cartilage that pushes the sternum backwards. Is surgically repairable.

Pectus Excavatum-Rapid

33

(Blank) at the junction of the costal cartilage with the sternum. This pain is generally reproducible by pressure on the location.

Costochondritis-Pain

34

Breast is always situated between the (Blank) ribs and from the (Blank) border of sternum to (Blank).

1) 2nd and 6th
2) lateral
3) midaxillary line

35

The breast is separated from the pectoral major's investing fascia by the (blank).

retromammary space

36

The Retinaculum cutis of the breast is called....

Suspensory ligaments (Cooper’s)
More well defined in breast to support more tissue

37

What happens to the female breast at puberty?

Before puberty the glandular tissue is undeveloped. At puberty, fat deposition occurs, and lactiferous ducts give rise to 15-20 lobes of glandular tissue which drain through the ducts to the nipple. These lobes further divide into lobules.

38

What is the small sac called that is located just inside the nipple that stores a droplet of milk in a lactating breast?

Lactiferous sinus which arise from lactiferous ducts

39

Describe what happens to the breast when a tumor has invaded.

Visualize the tumor; push on ligaments
Dimpling of skin indicates late stage of breast cancer --> mammogram development
Poer de orange

40

What are the 3 blood supplies for the breast? Which one is used in bypass?

Lateral:
1) lateral thoracic artery
2) posterior intercostal
Medial:
perforating branches of internal thoracic artery (not sandwiched between intercostal muscles)
Used in Bipass bc other vessels will supply blood

41

What is the nerve of the breast?

Long thoracic nerve

42

What are the lymph nodes that supply the breast? Where do they drain to and which ones are sentient?

1)Apical axillary (subclavian) nodes
2)Central axillary nodes
3)Lateral axillary (humeral) nodes (upper arm)
4)Posterior axillary (subscapular) nodes
5)Interpectoral nodes*
6) Anterior axillary (pectoral) nodes*
7) Parasternal nodes
8) subphrenic nodes (to liver)
Interpectoral and Anterior axil. Are the sentinel nodes (drain here first then to the central and apical nodes on its way to the junction of the lymphatic duct with the junction of the subclavian and Int. Jugular veins. )
Cancer shows up here first 65-70% of cancer in Upper lateral quad.

43

Intercostal arteries come off the (Blank) posteriorly under the ribs.

aorta

44

What are the directions lymph can go?

1) Down
2) Straight
3) Across midline
4) Up
5) Right to axillary nodes (to lymphatic duct) or left to the thoracic duct

45

Gynecomastia

Gynecomastia is swelling of the breast tissue in boys or men, caused by an imbalance of the hormones estrogen and testosterone. Gynecomastia can affect one or both breasts, sometimes unevenly. Newborns, boys going through puberty and older men may develop gynecomastia as a result of normal changes in hormone levels, though other causes also exist.

46

What ar the nerves and vessels in the Neurovascular bundle that supply the abdomen superficially?

Lateral cutaneous branch of intercostal nerve
and lateral cutaneous branch of posterior intercostal
artery. Come out in very segmental pattern.
Coordinate with vertebrae. Come from the Long thoracic nerve and lateral thoracic artery.

47

What are the nerves of the pectoral muscle and what's funny about them?

Lateral pectoral nerve and Medial pectoral nerve. Their names come from where they originate from in the Brachial plexus; however, they the lateral looks medial and the medial looks lateral in the pectoral fascia.

48

The nipple is from which Dermamyotome?

T4

49

What is the function of the intercostal muscles?

1) Maintain space
2) Close off gaps between ribs

50

What is the muscle in the back that supports upper limb movement?

Serratus anterior muscle

51

What is the nerve running down the Serratus anterior muscle?

Long thoracic nerve

52

What is the blood supply for the Serratus anterior muscle?

The Lateral thoracic artery from the Subclavian artery

53

Intercostal veins drain to the (blank) system or the internal thoracic

azygos
Runs parallel to Vena Cava and vertically along the vertebra.

54

Where does the neuromuscular bundle sit in the ribs?

The neurovascular bundle lies between the two deepest layers of muscle and sits in a groove on the under side of each rib. Very Important*

55

Name some accessory respiratory muscles.

pectoralis major and minor, the scalenes, the serratus posterior and serratus anterior and the levator cost arum. Also, abdominal muscles.

56

(Blank) attach to ribs 1 and 2
All ribs go up when lifted
Can also move head and neck

Scalenes