What is a crime?
When someone breaks the law
Why do we have laws?
- Laws are there to show what acceptable behaviour is so that people can live safely without fear.
- Laws are made by the government and can vary from country to country (Alcohol age in UK is 18, 21 in America)
- What is Lawful can change over time (capital punishment used to be legal in the UK)
What is a sin?
- A sin is an action which goes against the will of God
- Some sins are also crimes E.G murder and stealing.
- Other sins are not against the law E.G Adultery
What is absolute morality?
- When a person holds an idea that something is always right, or always wrong.
- For example, murder is always wrong.
What is relative morality?
- Something is right or wrong depending on the situation.
- Stealing is wrong in principle, but to save a starving child it would be acceptable.
What is deterrence?
The punishment should put people off committing the crime.
What is the aim of deterrance?
- Criminals should think more carefully about breaking the law as they know they will be punished
- Punishments must be proportionate to the crime
- Seeing people be punished puts other people off doing the crime
What is rehabilitation?
Helping criminals reform through education, counselling and training so they don’t reoffend.
What is the aim of rehabilitation?
Criminals are less likely to commit the crime again as they become productive members of society.
Why might people be against rehabilitation?
- Some people see it as being ‘soft on criminals’
- Studies have found that factors like poverty and poor parenting mean people are more likely to turn to crime. Unless these are addressed people will continue to commit crimes.
What is retribution?
Making the criminal pay for what they have done.
What is the aim of retribution?
- People get what they deserve
- ‘An eye for an eye’ - Old Testament
Why would a Christian disagree with retribution?
Punishments should be motivated by justice not revenge.
What do Christians teach about forgiveness?
- Forgiveness is at the heart of the gospel.
- Christians should treat others with compassion, love, mercy and forgiveness.
- Jesus makes it clear there is no limit to forgiveness ‘ You should forgive 77 times’
What do Christians follow that shows forgiveness?
- The Lord’s Prayer ‘ Forgive us our sins’
- The Parable of the Prodigal Son - The father forgives and welcomes back his son.
- Jesus forgave the people who put him to death ‘Father forgive them for they know not what they do’
How do forgiveness and justice/punishment work together?
- It is up to God to judge people and he will forgive those who are truly sorry for what they have done.
- Christians see the main purpose of punishment to be able to help the person involved to reform.
What Catholic views are there FOR capital punishment?
- Jesus never taught that Capital Punishment was wrong.
- In the Old Testament it teaches that Capital Punishment should be used for some crimes.
- Some people argue that it upholds the commandment ‘do not kill’ as it shows the seriousness of murder as a crime.
- St Paul teaches that you should obey the law of your country - Capital Punishment is legal in some.
- The Catholic Church has not cancelled their statements that Capital Punishment can be used by the country.
What Catholic views are there AGAINST capital punishment?
- Jesus came to reform sinners - you can’t reform a dead person.
- The 5th Commandment says ‘do not kill’
- Jesus said revenge is wrong ‘turn the other cheek’
- Christianity teaches all life is Sacred and only God can give and take away life.
- The message of Christianity is love and forgiveness - Capital Punishment goes against this.
- The wrong person might be killed.
- Pope Francis stated he is against Capital Punishment.
What non-religious views are there FOR capital punishment?
- Retribution is a major part of punishment - the only retribution for murder is Capital Punishment.
- Human life is valuable and the worth of it will be shown by giving those who take a life the worst punishment it acts as a good deterrent.
What non-religious views are there AGAINST capital punishment?
- No court can be sure the correct verdict is given - you could kill an innocent person.
- It is proven that countries without Capital Punishment have a lower murder rate - so it doesn’t work as a deterrent.
- Murderers regard life in prison as worse than Capital Punishment.
- Humanists say that all people have Human Rights and Capital Punishment takes away this.
What is the meaning of salvation for Catholics?
- Catholics believe Salvation is part of God’s plan.
- Original Sin brought the need for salvation to repair our broken relationship with God.
- Jesus offers salvation and we were saved by his life on earth, death, resurrection and ascension into heaven.
- ‘Dying he destroyed our death, in rising he restored out life’
- ‘lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world’
What do Christians believe about Salvation?
- Humans rejected God by their sins; humans are so important to God that God sent Jesus to free humans from the effects of sinfulness.
- Their relationship with God depends on Jesus’ life, death and resurrection. Without it, they cannot be close to God or obtain forgiveness for their sins.
- They need to repent of their sins, asking God for forgiveness, and accept Jesus Christ as Son of God and saviour of the world.
What is the role of grace in redemption/salvation?
- Grace is the love and mercy shown by God because God wants people to have it, not because they have done anything to earn or deserve it, because he WANTS to give it.
- Christians believe they do not deserve it but they are given it freely and they must freely accept it from God.
What does Jesus teach us about what God is like and how to live?
- God is a loving Father
- Love is at the heart of the gospels
- God has a special place for the poor and needy
- Jesus showed God’s care by healing the sick
- Jesus spent his whole life with the poor and needy.
What happened at the death of Jesus?
- After the Last Supper, Jesus went with his disciples to the Garden of Gethsemane.
- Jesus prayed at the Garden and shortly after was betrayed by Judas and arrested.
- He was tried by the Jewish religious leaders and found guilty of blasphemy (insulting God)
- He was put to death on the cross by Pontius Pilate.
- He was mocked and beat by the soldiers before his crucifixion.
What does Jesus’ death have to do with sacrifice?
- We explain Jesus’ death through sacrifice.
- Jesus hoped to mend our relationship for God.
- The animal making the sacrifice takes blame for something it did not do - Jesus did not commit everyone’s sins yet he freed human beings from the sins they had committed.
- Jesus total obedience to God was so powerful taht it made up for the sins of human beings in a way that other sacrifices could not.
What is the importance of the resurrection?
- It is the central belief to Christianity.
- Catholics believe Jesus overcoming death proves he was the Son of God - only God can conquer death.
- The resurrection demonstrates that Jesus is our saviour.
What is the ascension?
When Jesus was taken up to heaven 40 days after his resurrection.
Why is the ascension important to Catholics?
- Jesus’ mission on the earth was complete
- He had completed everything God the Father wanted him to.
- Jesus returns to heaven to prepare a place for his followers.
- Jesus’ ascension prepared the way for the Holy Spirit to come.
Can a loving God send people to hell?
- God can only offer salvation.
- If people choose to do wrong, it is up to the individual of whether to accept Gods salvation or not.
- If they don’t accept it, God can’t force it.
What is the difference between Church with a capital C and church with a small c?
- c = The building where Christians come to pray
- C = Everyone who is a member of the Church all the people together.
What are the ‘four marks’ of the Church as named in The Creed?
‘I believe in one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church’
What does the ‘one’ mean in the ‘four marks’ of the Church as in the Nicene Creed?
The Church is one - it is united in the Body of Jesus Christ.
–> it is because of its source The Trinity - three people in one body/God.
What does the ‘holy’ mean in the ‘four marks’ of the Church as in the Nicene Creed?
- The Church is holy.
- Jesus is the source of all holiness.
- Jesus makes the church holy and its followers holy through prayer, worship and good works.
What does the ‘Catholic’ mean in the ‘four marks’ of the Church as in the Nicene Creed?
- Catholic means ‘universal’
- It has the task of reaching out to everyone with Jesus’ word - the Church is for everyone.
What does the ‘apostolic’ mean in the ‘four marks’ of the Church as in the Nicene Creed?
- Jesus founded the Church and gave the authority to his apostles.
- Peter was the first Pope - Gods representative on earth.
- The faith was taught and handed on and continued by the apostles and is so today in everyone - the modern apostles.
Why is Mary important to Catholics?
- She was chosen to be the human mother of God.
- She is described as Mary the Mother of God.
- Without Mary there would be no Jesus
- She is given the special title ‘Our Lady’
- All Catholic churches will have a statue of her and there is a special devotion to her.
How is Mary a model for the Church?
- Model of Faith - She had total faith in God and her Son. She said yes without question.
- Mary as a model of how to be a disciple - She was a true disciple. She spent her whole life dedicated to Jesus. We should serve God like this.
- Mary as an example of dedication. - She is an example of self-giving. She did not hold back, but gave her whole life to God.
What do we mean by ‘the Church is the body of Christ’?
- Jesus lives on through his followers and in the Church which is his body on earth.
- Each person within the Church has a different talent that they can use for the good of the Church in the same way that each part of a body has a different function.
- Christians become part of the Catholic Church and therefore the body of Christ through baptism.
- At the Eucharist they receive the body of Christ. They share in the body and are strengthened.
What do we mean by ‘outside the Church there is no salvation’?
It does NOT mean that if you are not part of the Church you are not saved. If you follow the teachings of the Church or your conscience and do good things that the Church would want, you will be saved.
God reaches people in a way we cannot know or understand - if you do not want to be saved and do not say sorry for your sins you will not be.
Why do churches have tall ceilings?
Creating space pointing up – connection to God and heaven
Why are church buildings sometimes cross shaped?
The importance of the death of Jesus.
Why are new churches often round iwth the altar in the middle?
Circular with the altar in the middle. Shows the oneness of the worshippers and the eternity of God.
Why do churches have stained glass windows?
Displaying Bible stories or lives of saints.
What is the altar and what does it remind us of?
- The priest consecrates the bread and wine here. It reminds us of the sacrifice and death of Jesus on the cross.
- The altar as a table also reminds us we are sharing in a fellowship meal. The candles on the altar represent Jesus as the light of the world.
What is the lecturn and why is it important?
- The priest or readers read from here. The scripture is read here
- we are nourished in spirit by listening to the Word. We read from the lectionary.
What is the baptismal font?
The first sacrament in which a person becomes part of the Church.
What is the tabernacle and why is it important?
- Where the consecrated host is kept.
- A focus for prayer and devotion. – they kneel towards the tabernacle.
- A sanctuary lamp near reminds Catholics of the presence of God in the tabernacle.
What is the crucifix and why is it important?
- Usually on or near the altar.
- It reminds Catholics that Jesus died for us to forgive our sins and he was the price for our salvation.
Why is the holy water container near the front of church important?
- They sign themselves with the water reminding us of the Trinity, the death of Jesus and their own baptism.
- It helps focus their mind as they enter the Church.
What are the stations of the cross and why are they important?
- The different stations of the journey to Jesus’ death and resurrection
- Used during Lent to focus worship on the death of Jesus.
Why are statues used and what are votive candles?
- There are statues throughout - usually one of Our Lady to help people pray.
- In front of the statues there will often be votive candles which are lighted symbolising their prayer.
What is a Sacrament?
- An outward sign of an inward grace.
- Catholics believe while Jesus was on earth everything, he did was a visible sign of God’s love.
- We can connect with this through the Sacraments.
How do the Sacraments help us experience God?
- They experience Gods nourishing, forgving, healing and strengthening power in a special way.
- It helps them build their relationship with God and become more like Jesus.
What are the 7 Sacraments of the Catholic Church?
- Holy Communion/Eucharist
- Holy Orders
- Anointing of the Sick
What is Baptism?
- It is the first step in the lifelong journey of commitment and discipleship
- water is poured on the babies head and the priest says:
‘I baptise you in the name of the father, the son and the Holy Spirit’
What is the meaning and significance of baptism?
- The person baptised becomes part of the family of God.
- Baptism takes away original sin and gives new life with the Holy Sprit
What is confirmation?
- The person chooses to continue their faith
- confirmation is done when Catholics are older.
- It is usually given by the bishop
- The bishop lays his hands on the persons head and anoints them with oil
What is the meaning and significance of confirmation?
- It completes the sacrament of baptism
- It gives the strength to follow Jesus and become more involved in the mission he left to the church.
What is Eucharist/Holy Communion?
- At the last supper Jesus took bread and wine and asked his followers to re-enact the meal when they come together.
- Catholics receive the bread and wine at mass.
What is the meaning and significance of Eucharist/Holy Communion?
- It is both a sacrifice and a meal
- They believe in the real presence of Jesus who died for our sins.
- They receive his body and blood and are fed spiritually.
What is Reconciliation/Penance/Confession?
- The person confesses their sins.
- The priest forgives their sins from God.
- ‘I absolve you of your sins in the name of the father, the son and the Holy Spirit’
What is the meaning and significance of Reconciliation/Penance/Confession?
- By expressing sorrow for their sins, Catholics experience Gods forgiveness and healing.
- Their relationship with God and their unity as a church is made whole again.
What is the Anointing of the Sick?
The individual is anointed with an oil (symbol of strength) and receives the laying-on of the hands from a priest.
What is the meaning and significance of the Anointing of the Sick?
- It unifies the persons suffering with Jesus and brings forgiveness of sins
- It brings strength in illness, comfort from suffering and prepares people close to death to meet God.
What are Holy Orders?
- The bishop will lay his hands on the person and anoint him with oil.
- He will serve the community and bring about the salvation of others.
What is the meaning and significance of Holy Orders?
- Men are ordained as priests, deacons or bishops.
- Priests serve as spiritual leaders
- They act in the place of Christ on earth.
- God’s presence is known through them.
What is marriage?
- The couple are joined together in the eyes of God.
- They say vows and swap wedding rings.
What is the meaning and significance of marriage?
- A baptised man and woman are united as a sign of the unity between Jesus and his Church.
- God is present through the couple’s lifelong love and commitment to each other.
Why is the mass important to Catholics?
- It is where they gather to recall the last supper
- It is the source of Christian life.
- They are unified with God.
- It re-enacts the sacrifice of Christ on the cross
- We are spiritually fed through the body and blood.
When do Catholics believe Christ is present in the mass?
- In the bread and wine - Jesus’ body and blood.
- In the readings - Jesus is the word of God.
- In each of the believers gathered together.
- In the priest- Christ works through them.
What do Catholics believe about evangelisation?
- We should make ‘disciples of all nations’
- We are called to continue the work of announcing the gospel.
- Evangelisation does not mean forcing people to convert.
- It is about sharing and living out the message.
What does Pope Francis say about evangelisation?
- He wrote a letter called Evangelii gaudium
- It is about our mission to evangelise in the modern world.
- To share the gospel is to show love and care for the weak, vulnerable and poor.
- Parishes should be welcoming places.
- Catholics should be looking for new ways to spread the gospel.
What are the three main ways we can evangelise?
How can we evangelise locally?
- The basic message of God’s love is passed on through mass, sacraments, Bible study, charitable works, social events etc.
- A Catholic might choose a career like teaching, medicine or caring which demonstrates Gods love for the world
- Being married and raising children in the faith.
How can we evangelise nationally?
- The Bishops conference helps Catholics know how to share the gospel.
- You could attend national events and conferenced such as ‘the flame’ which was hosted in 2017.
How can we evangelise nationally?
- The Pope visits countries
- World Youth Days
- Twitter, YouTube and Instagram
What are the benefits to religious diversity in Britain?
- Greater tolerance and understanding of others
- Rich culture from experiencing the religions and traditions of others.
- Better understanding of alternative viewpoints.
- New ways of enjoying life.
What are the challenges to religious diversity in Britain?
- Not always easy to be open and understanding with others
- Tensions can exist between different faith groups
- Some people’s beliefs may be ignored
- How can Christians spread the gospel if people aren’t interested in it?
What are the issues with religious diversity in Britain?
- Conversion - People may not want others to convert causing conflict.
- Interfaith marriage - cause conflict between different families, where to have the wedding and which church.
- Raising children - interfaith marriages might want the child brought up in their faith leading to argument.
Why do religious leaders get involved in interfaith dialogues?
- Recognise common features
- Respect differences
- Listen to one another
- Learn to live and work in unity
- Share common values such as respect, tolerance, charity and non-violence
What do Catholics mean by the Church as the body of Christ?
The body of Christ means that when Jesus went into heaven this was not the end of his work on earth, he still lives on through his followers and the Church.
Why is the Church as the body of Christ is important for Catholics?
- Catholics should continue on Jesus physical work, giving help and teach,
- Each person just like a different part of a body is used for the good of the whole body but has a different function.
What traditions in the UK have their foundation in Christianity?
- Shops have restricted opening hours on Sunday (keep the sabbath day holy)
- In court witnesses swear to tell the truth often on the Bible.
- Lots of people get married in a Church even if they are not particularly religious.
What Christian festivals are celebrated in the UK?
- Valentines day
What Non-religious festivals are celebrated in the UK?
- Bonfire Night
- Notting Hill Carnival
What is the role of religion in education?
- All pupils MUST, by law, be taught religious education.
- Religious Education should reflect that the traditions are mainly Christian.
- 1/3 of state schools are faith schools.