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Flashcards in Skeletal Deck (56):
1

Hyaline Cartilage

stretchy and strong

-mid range, most common

- found in: nose, trachea, ribs, fetal skeleton, end of long bones

2

Fibrocartilage

strongest

-found in: intervertebral disc‘s, pubic symphysis, knee meniscus

3

Elastic cartilage

stretchiest

- found in: ear, epiglottis

4

Axial skeleton

lie along the long axis

- ribs, skull, vertebrae

5

Appendicular skeleton

limbs

- pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle

6

Long bones

longer than they are wide

- ex: humorous, tibia, femur

7

Short bones

cube shaped

- ex: patella, carpals

8

Flat bones

thin, flat and a bit curved

-ex: ribs, sternum, most of skull

9

Irregular bones

bones with complicated shapes

-ex: vertebrae, oxcoaxe

10

Functions of bones

1. Support
- framework, cradles soft organs
2. Protection
- encloses soft organs (skull, vital organs)
3. Movement
- provide levers for muscles
4. Mineral storage
- stores calcium and phosphorus
5. Blood cell formation
- hematopoiesis (hollow part of bone)

11

Compact bone

dense outer layer

12

Spongy bone

honeycomb of trabeculae filled with yellow bone marrow


*trabeculae: little beams

13

Where is bone marrow?

stored in medulla cavity

14

What covers the ends of long bones?

articular cartilage

15

Structure of a flat bone

• Compact bone: outer layer of compact and spongy bone inside

• Spongy bone (diploë): in short, flat and irregular

16

Location of hemopoietic tissue

In red marrow and makes RBCs, WBCs and platelets

- infants : found medulla cavity and spongy bone

- adults: found in diploë, head of femur and humerus
> anemics can convert yellow to red marrow in need

17

Osteoclasts

large cells that absorb and
breakdown bone matrix

18

Osteoblasts

bone forming cells

- when is trapped in matrix it turns into osteocyte

19

Osteocyte

mature bone cells

20

Osteoid

unmineralized bone matrix

21

Lacuna

hollowed out space for osteocyte to live

22

Canaliculus

tiny canals nutrients diffuse from blood vessel in Haversion canal to osteocyte

23

Osteon

functional unit of bone

- Haversian system

24

Lamellae

hard nonliving part (matrix)

25

Perforating fibers

– AKA Sharpeys fibers

- connects periosteum to bone

26

blood vessel

continues into medullary cavity containing marrow

27

Central (Haversian) canal

hollow tube for blood vessel and nerve

- Parallel with long bone

28

perforating (Volkmanns) canal

Space for blood vessel and nerves

- perpendicular to long bone

29

What color is the marrow in spongy bone?

Red

30

Calcification

hardening and crystallization of bone matrix

- adding minerals to osteoid/matrix

31

Hydroxyapatites

mostly mineral salts like: calcium, phosphate and about 65% bone mass

- gives bone hardness and resistance to compression

32

Ossification

- Osteogenesis + Ossification: process of bone tissue formation

- leads to: formation of bony skeleton embryos, bone growth until adulthood, bone growth + thickness, remodeling + repair

33

Intra-membranous ossification

bone develops from fibrous membrane, flat bones in skull and clavicle

34

Endochondral ossification

bones forms by replacing hyaline cartilage, long bones, fetus formed this way

35

Lysosomal enzymes

- disgust collagen and organic material

36

Acid

dissolve bone minerals

37

Bone remodeling

Bone resorption followed by bone deposit

- osteoclasts > osteoblasts

38

Bone resorption

Osteoclasts bind to periosteum/endosteum to form a leak proof seal and secretes lysosome enzyme and acids

39

Bone deposit

Osteoblasts lay down new bone (osteoid)

40

Calcium

Important to have an adequate amount in bloodstream

41

Importance of calcium?

More important to keep calcium in bloodstream because of nerves impulses, muscle contractions, mitosis

42

Wolff’s law

- Bone becomes thicker/stronger to resist forces placed upon it (running and weights)

- Bones becomes thinner/weaker when no forces are acting on it (swimming, astronauts)

43

Developmental aspects of bone

Embryonic skeleton ossifies in a predictable timetable that allows fetus age to be easily determined

-at birth most bones are well ossified

- at 25 nearly all bones completely ossified and old age bone resorption predominates

44

Osteomalacia

inadequate bone mineralization caused by lack of calcium and vitamin D

- treated: add calcium and vitamin D in diet

45

Ricketts

inadequate bone mineralization in children

- treated: add calcium and vitamin D in diet

- can cause: bone deformities (bowed legs)

46

Osteoporosis

bone resorption outpaces bone deposit. bone turns weak/porous.

- treated: working out + vitamin D
- causes: kyphosis (hunchback)
- Why little old white women?
• Little- less weight on bones
• Old - post menopausal, lack of hormones and estrogen
• White- less vitamin D
• Women – less testosterone

47

Pagets

excessive bone formation and breakdown

48

FOP

- fibrous dysplasia ossifigous progressiva

- soft tissue can turn into bone tissues
• no known cure

49

Hypercalcemia

high levels of blood calcium.

- cause: kidney stones

50

Club foot

foot turns inward or sole of turns upward

- easily fixed

51

Carpal tunnel

repetitive finger movement

- treated: lower activity of fingers or surgery

52

Spina bifida

spine and spinal cord fail to develop properly (neural tube defect)

- caused by: folate deficiency, obesity, diabetes

53

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

brittle bone disease where bones don’t form properly. bones are weak, shatter easily, sometimes painful, blue sclera, trouble hearing

-Caused by in adequate collagen

- no treatment

54

Achondroplasia

type of dwarfism where head is normal size

-defective cartilage that interferes growth of long bones

- no cure

55

Osteosarcoma

bone cancer

-More common in young people because bone is still developing

56

Osteomyelitis

Bone infection