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Flashcards in Skeletal & Calcium Deck (57):
1

the cells that form bone, they secrete the matrix of bone and then supply minerals necessary to harden it

osteoblasts

2

bone cells that become trapped in the ossified matrix; can revert back to previous state if injury occurs

osteocytes

3

instead of forming new bone, these eat it away; they are necessary for remodeling to take place by removing bone where it is not needed

osteoclasts

4

these bone cells allow the body to withdraw calcium from the bones when it is needed to raise the calcium level in the blood

osteoclasts

5

when the bone matrix is infiltrated with calcium and phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite crystals

ossification

6

the sparse population of bone cells embedded in a hard intercellular substance; initially soft and composed of collagen fibers in protein and polysaccharides

bone matrix

7

cave-like spaces in the ossified matrix that trap osteoblasts

lacunae

8

tiny channels through the matrix of bone that allow threadlike projections from osteocytes communicate with each other and also with blood vessels

canaliculi

9

give bone its characteristic hardness

hydroxyapatite crystals

10

calcium's roles in body functions

- muscle contraction
- blood clotting
- milk secretion
- skeletal formation and maintenance

11

two hormones responsible for calcium

calcitonin and parathyroid hormone

12

calcium level that is too high

hypercalcemia; calcitonin prevents

13

calcium level that is too low

hypocalcemia; parathyroid hormone prevents

14

thyroid gland produces:

calcitonin

15

parathyroid glands produces:

parathyroid hormone

16

regulation of calcium levels in the body

calcitropic

17

hardest and most rigid type of connective tissue; aka bone

osseous connective tissue

18

blood cell formation

hematopoiesis

19

hormone that is essential for blood clotting and bone/tooth formation

vitamin d

20

bone minerals

calcium and phosphorus are the most abundant minerals with magnesium salts

21

light, spongy bone with tiny spicules containing bone marrow randomly arranged

cancellous bone

22

heavy, dense bone; shafts of long bones and the outside layer or all bones

compact bone

23

tiny, tightly compacted cylinders of bone that runs lengthwise containing layers of ossified bone matrix

haversian systems

24

contains blood and lymph vessels and nerves

haversian canal

25

membrane that covers outer surfaces of bones

periosteum

26

composed of fibrous tissue

outer layer of periosteum

27

enables bones to increase in diameter by containing osteoblasts

inner layer of periosteum

28

two types of bone formation

endochondral and intramembranous

29

bone is formed either by growing or by replacing a cartilage model

endochondral bone formation

30

bone develops from fibrous tissue membrane; only occurs in skull bones

intramembranous bone formation

31

primary growth center

diaphysis of cartilage rod

32

secondary growth center

epiphysis

33

allow for lengthening of the bone

epiphyseal plates

34

what are the two calcitropic hormones involved in calcium homeostasis?

calcium and parathyroid hormone

35

what inhibits bone reabsorption by osteoclasts?

calcitonin

36

during bone formation, osteoblasts replace cartilage where?

the diaphyseal aspect of the growth plate

37

where are the secondary growth centers of bones located?

the epiphysis of the cartilage rod

38

what is an example of a spheroidal joint?

the hip

39

channels through bone matrix that contain blood vessels; join at right angles other canals

volkmann's canals

40

large bone vessels that carry blood into and out of bone marrow

nutrient foramina

41

bone marrow

fills the space between bones

42

forms blood cells, most prominent in younger animals

red bone marrow

43

primarily adipose connective tissue, can convert back to original marrow if needed

yellow bone marrow

44

number of pairs equals number of thoracic vertebrae

ribs

45

ventral ends of the ribs; join together

costal cartilage

46

end in the thoracic wall muscles

floating ribs

47

area where cartilage meets bony rib

costochondral junction

48

manubrium is most cranial, xiphoid process most caudal; forms floor of the thorax

sternum

49

joints

- fibrous or immovable
- cartilaginous or slightly movable
- synovial or freely moving

50

fibrous; immovable

synarthroses; skull sutures and splint bones of metacarpus/metatarsus

51

cartilaginous; slightly movable

amphiarthroses; intervertebral joints and pelvic/mandibular symphyses

52

synovial; freely movable

diarthroses; shoulder and stifle joint

53

types of synovial joints

- spheroidal - ball and socket
- trochoid - pivot
- arthrodial - gliding/rocking
- ginglymus - hinge

54

hinge joint; one joint surface swivels around another

ginglymus; elbow joint and atlanto-ocipital joint

55

gliding joint; rocking joints

arthrodial; carpus

56

pivot joint; one bone pivots or rotates on another

trochoid; atlanto-axial joint

57

ball and socket joint; allows the most extensive movement of all joint types

spheroidal; shoulder and hip joints