Skeletal & Muscular Systems (Chapter 5) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Skeletal & Muscular Systems (Chapter 5) Deck (112):
1

pain in a joint

arthralgia

2

inability to coordinate muscles while executing a voluntary movement

ataxia

3

lacking development, or wasting

atrophy

4

abnormally slow movement

bradykinesia

5

difficulty in movement

dyskinesia

6

deformities that arise during development

dystrophy

7

excessive development

hypertrophy

8

muscle tenderness or pain

myalgia

9

state of rigidity of muscle during which the muscle is unable to contract

rigor

10

abnormal, sudden, involuntary muscle contraction (tonic spasm), or series of alternating muscle contractions & relaxations (clonic spasm)

spasm

11

pain in a tendon

tenodynia

12

involuntary shaking of limbs

tremor

13

abnormal, slow growth of long bones resulting in unusually short, stocky limbs

achondroplasia

14

abnormal condition of joint stiffness

ankylosis

15

inflammation & degeneration of a joint

arthritis

16

inflammation of cartilages w/in joints

arthrochondritis

17

abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe

bunion

18

inflammation of a bursa

bursitis

19

calcium deposit (or stone) w/in a bursa

bursolith

20

CTS: repetitive stress injury in which the median nerve of the wrist generates pain impulses due to inflammation of the synovial sheath

carpal tunnel syndrome

21

drooping of the wrist AKA wrist drop

carpoptosis

22

deterioration or softening of cartilage

chondromalacia

23

prolonged, involuntary muscular contractions

cramps

24

fissure of the skull present at birth

cranioschisis

25

inflammation of an intervertebral disk

diskitis

26

DMD: congenital condition that results in progressive muscular weakness & deterioration

Duchenne's muscular dystrophy

27

inflammation of cartilages of the elbow

epicondylitis

28

break in a bone

fracture

29

abnormal deposition of uric acid crystals in the joints causing localized pain

gout

30

rupture of an intervertebral disk resulting in protrusion of tissue against spinal nerves or spinal cord, generating pain

herniated disk

31

deformity of the spine characterized by the presence of a hump AKA humpback

kyphosis

32

inflammation of lateral tendon of the elbow AKA tennis elbow

lateral epicondylitis

33

deformity of the spine characterized by an anterior curve of the lumbar area AKA swayback

lordosis

34

inherited condition resulting in excessive cartilage formation at growth plates, forming long arms & legs

Marfan's syndrome

35

inflammation of maxilla

maxillitis

36

inflammation of meniscus

meniscitis

37

weakness in muscles

myasthenia gravis

38

tumor composed of bone marrow cells

myeloma

39

protrusion of muscle through it's fascia

myocele

40

spasm or twitching of muscle or muscle group

myoclonus

41

inflammation of muscle tissue

myositis

42

inflammation of bone

osteitis

43

viral infection of bone that causes deformities of the skeleton & results from acceleration of bone loss AKA Paget's disease

osteitis deformans

44

OA: form of arthritis characterized by an age-related deterioration of joints that is accompanied by erosion of cartilage & painful inflammation

osteoarthritis

45

inflammation of bone & associated cartilage

osteochondritis

46

benign tumor of bone, where the tumor contains fibrous connective tissue that surrounds bone

osteofibroma

47

inherited condition that results in impaired growth & fragile bones; leads to progressive skeletal deformation & frequent fractures

osteogenesis imperfecta

48

gradual & painful softening of bones

osteomalacia

49

painful bone infection caused by bacteria; characterized by inflammation of red bone marrow

osteomyelitis

50

death of bone tissue

osteonecrosis

51

excessive formation of dense bone, which crowds out marrow cavities & leads to cutting off the blood supply to bone AKA marble bone

osteopetrosis

52

abnormal loss of bone density

osteoporosis

53

primary cancer of bone

osteosarcoma

54

paralysis of both legs & the lower part of the body

paraplegia

55

partial motor paralysis

paresis

56

inflammation of many muscles simultaneously

polymyositis

57

paralysis of all 4 appendages

quadriplegia

58

RA: form of arthritis characterized by progressive, gradual joint deterioration that is caused by an autoimmune response

rheumatoid arthritis

59

abnormal lateral curvature of the spine

scoliosis

60

SCI: trauma to the spinal cord, which often results in paralysis

spinal cord injury

61

inflammation of intervertebral joints

spondylarthritis

62

injury that results from stretching a ligament beyond its normal range, tearing its collagen fibers

sprain

63

injury that results from stretching a muscle beyond its normal range, tearing muscle tissue

strain

64

cancer of synovial membrane in a joint

synoviosarcoma

65

inflammation of a tendon, such as in rotator cuff tendinitis AKA pitcher's shoulder

tendinitis

66

inflammation of a tendon and the synovial membrane that surrounds it

tenosynovitis

67

surgical puncture of a joint to aspirate fluids from the synovial cavity

arthrocentesis

68

breaking of an abnormally stiff joint during surgery to increase range of motion

arthroclasia

69

surgical fixation (stabilization) of a joint

arthrodesis

70

x-ray film of a joint after injection of air, contrast media, or both

arthrogram

71

physician who specializes in the treatment of joint disease

arthrologist

72

field of medicine concerned w/ the study & treatment of joint disease

arthrology

73

surgical repair of a joint, which may involve total joint replacement

arthroplasty

74

surgery of a joint using an arthroscope

arthroscopic surgery

75

endoscopic visual examination of a joint cavity using a fiber-optic instrument (arthroscope)

arthroscopy

76

surgical incision into a joint

arthrotomy

77

surgical excision of a bursa

bursectomy

78

surgical incision into a bursa

bursotomy

79

field of therapy that mainly involves manipulation of the vertebral column

chiropractic

80

specialist in chiropractic

chiropractor

81

surgical excision of a joint cartilage

chondrectomy

82

surgical repair of a joint cartilage

chondroplasty

83

surgical excision of a rib

costectomy

84

surgical repair of a defect in the cranium

cranioplasty

85

surgical entry into the cranium

craniotomy

86

surgical excision of an intervertebral disk

diskectomy

87

EMG: diagnostic procedure that records the strength of muscle contraction

electromyography

88

surgical incision into fascia

fasciotomy

89

surgical excision of part of a vertebra known as the lamina, often part of treatment for a herniated disk

laminectomy

90

surgical removal of a meniscus

meniscectomy

91

surgical repair of muscle tissue

myoplasty

92

closing a muscle w/ sutures

myorrhaphy

93

medical field that manages musculoskeletal diseases

orthopedics

94

physician who specializes in musculoskeletal diseases

orthopedist

95

construction & fitting of orthopedic appliances, such as lifts, prosthetic devices, etc, to assist in patient movement

orthotics

96

technician who specializes in orthotics

orthotist

97

surgical excision of bone

ostectomy

98

surgical breaking of a bone to correct a defect

osteoclasis

99

technician who specializes in treatment of bone disease

osteologist

100

field of medicine concerned w/ study & treatment of bone disease

osteology

101

DO: physician trained in osteopathy

osteopath

102

medical field that emphasizes the relationship between the musculoskeletal system & overall health, w/ emphasis on preventative medicine

osteopathy

103

surgical repair of bone

osteoplasty

104

physician trained in podiatry

podiatrist

105

medical field that specializes in treating the foot

podiatry

106

artificial substitute for a missing body part

prosthesis

107

surgical incision into the vertebral column

rachiotomy

108

surgical connection of adjacent vertebrae, usually as a treatment for a herniated disk AKA spondylosyndesis

spinal fusion

109

surgical excision of a joint's synovial membrane

synovectomy

110

surgical repair of a muscle & its tendon

tenomyoplasty

111

closing a tendon w/ sutures

tenorrhaphy

112

incision into a tendon

tenotomy