Skeletal and Neurovascular Organization of the Head Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Skeletal and Neurovascular Organization of the Head Deck (111):
1

What are the 10 regions associated with the skull?

1.) Orbits
2.) Nasal Cavities
3.) Oral Cavity
4.) Ear
5.) Infratemporal Fossa
6.) Pterygopalatine Fossa
7.) Anterior Cranial Fossa
8.) Middle Cranial Fossa
9.) Posterior Cranial Fossa
10.) Neck

2

Can be considered the crossroads of the skull since many neurovascular structures pass through its openings en route to other regions of the head

Sphenoid bone

3

What are the bony features of the sphenoid bone?

Lesser and greater wings, body, sella turcica, and medial and lateral pterygoid plates

4

These bony features form parts of which regions of the head?

Orbit, nasal cavity, oral cavity, infratemporal fossa, pterygopalatine fossa, anterior cranial fossa, and nearly all of the middle cranial fossa

5

What are the 5 openings of the sphenoid bone?

1.) Optic canal
2.) Superior orbital fissue
3.) Foramen Rotundum
4.) Foramen Ovale
5.) Foramen Spinosum

6

Which of the two openings connect the middle cranial fossa and orbit?

Optic canal and superior orbital fissure

7

The foramen rotundum is an opening in the sphenoid bone that connects the

Middle cranial fossa and the pterygopalatine fossa

8

The Foramen ovale AND foramen spinosum are openings in the sphenoid bone that connects the

Middle cranial fossa and the infratemporal fossa

9

Houses and protects structures of the inner and middle ear and forms the bony portion of the external ear

Temporal Bone

10

What are the 6 bony portions of the Temporal bone?

Squamous and petrous portions, zygomatic, styloid, and mastoid processes, and the mandibular fossa

11

These bony features form parts of which regions of the head?

Ear, infratemporal fossa, middle cranial fossa, and posterior cranial fossa

12

What are the four openings of the temporal bone?

1.) External auditory meatus
2.) Internal auditory meatus
3.) Stylomastoid foramen
4.) Carotid canal

13

The external auditory meatus is an opening in the temporal bone that

Opens externally

14

The internal auditory meatus is an opening in the temporal bone that connects which regions of the head?

Posterior cranial fossa and inner ear

15

The stylomastoid foramen is an opening in the temporal bone that connects which regions of the head?

Petrous portion and Neck

16

The carotid canal is an opening in the temporal bone that connects which regions of the head?

Middle Cranial fossa and the Neck

17

The Trigeminal nerve (Cranial Nerve 5) is divided into which three parts?

Opthalmic (V1), Maxillary (V2), and Mandibular (V3) divisions

18

The opthalmic division is made up of which three nerves?

Frontal, Lacrimal, and Nasociliary nerves

19

Enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure, superior to the central ring tendon

Frontal and Lacrimal nerves

20

The frontal nerve divides into the

Supraorbital and supratrochlear branches

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The frontal nerve exits via the

Supraorbital and supratrochlear foramina

22

The frontal nerve exits via the supraorbital and supratrochlear foramina to supple

Skin over orbit and forehead

23

The lacrimal nerve courses laterally in orbit to provide sensory innervation to the

Lacrimal gland

24

Reach the lacrimal gland by hitchhiking on the lacrimal nerve

Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers

25

Enters orbit via the superior orbital fissure WITHIN the central ring tendon

Nasociliary nerve

26

Courses from lateral to medial by crossing Superior to the optic nerve

Nasociliary nerve

27

The nasociliary nerve connects to the ciliary ganglion via the

Sensory root

28

The nerve gives off long ciliary nerves to the

Eye

29

The nasociliary nerve has ethmoidal branches to ethmoidal sinuses that are all

Sensory

30

The maxillary division of the Trigeminal nerve gives off which three nerves?

Maxillary, infraorbital, and zygomatic nerves

31

The maxillary nerve enters the pterygopalatine fossa from the MCF via the

Foramen Rotundum

32

Within the fossa it is attached to the Pterygopalatine ganglion

Maxillary nerve

33

Via branches from the pterygopalatine ganglion, the maxillary nerve provides sensory innervation to the

Nasal and oral cavities

34

The maxillary nerve branches, creating the zygomatic nerve, and continues as the

Infraorbital nerve

35

The infraorbital nerve exits the pterygopalatine fossa via the

Inferior orbital fissure to enter the floor of the orbit

36

Within the orbital floor, the infraorbital nerve inters the infraorbital canal and exits the skull via the

Infraorbital foramen

37

Within the orbital floor, the infraorbital nerve inters the infraorbital canal and exits the skull via the infraorbital foramen to supply

The face between the mouth and orbit

38

Exits the pterygopalatine fossa via the inferior orbital fissure

Zygomatic and infraorbital nerves

39

Courses in the lateral wall of the orbit, sending a branch to the lacrimal nerve

Zygomatic nerve

40

The branch that the zygomatic nerve sends to the lacrimal nerve is made up of

Post ganglionic parasympathetic fibers

41

The zygomatic nerve exits the orbit as the

Zygomaticofacial and temporal nerves

42

The mandibular division of the Trigeminal nerve gives off which 5 nerves?

1.) Mandibular nerve
2.) Buccal Nerve
3.) Auriculotemporal Nerve
4.) Inferior Alveolar nerve
5.) Lingual Nerve

43

Enters the infratemporal fossa via the foramen ovale

Mandibular nerve

44

Innervates muscles of mastication and gives off 4 sensory branches

Mandibular nerve

45

The mandibular nerve gives off a mylohyoid branch that gives motor control to the

Mylohyoid and anterior belly of the digastric muscle

46

The buccal nerve pierces the buccinator muscle to supply sensory innervation to the

Mucosa of the cheeks

47

Splits around the middle meningeal artery and continues laterally to the parotid gland and skin anterior to the ear

Auriculotemporal nerve

48

The auriculotemporal nerve splits around the middle meningeal artery and continues laterally to the

Parotid gland and skin anterior to the ear

49

Hitchhike on the auriculotemporal nerve to the parotid gland

Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the octic ganglion

50

Enters the mandibular foramen and supplies the mandibular teeth

Inferior alveolar nerve

51

The inferior alveolar nerve exits themandible via the mental foramen to supply

SKin on the chin

52

Courses anterior into the floor of the mouth where it provides sensory innervation to the anterior two thirds of the tongue

Lingual nerve

53

The lingual nerve provides sensory innervation to the

Anterior 2/3 of the tongue

54

Join the lingual nerve in the infratemporal fossa

PREganglionic parasympathetic and taste fibers from the chorda tympani nerve (VII branch)

55

The chorda tympani nerve is a branch of the

Facial Nerve (VII)

56

Attached to the lingual nerve in the floor of the mouth

Submandibular ganglion

57

The facial nerve (VII) Branches into the

Greater petrosal nerve, Chorda tympani nerve, and the nerve to stapedius

58

The facial nerve enters the inner ear within the temporal bone via the

Internal auditory meatus

59

Enters the facial canal still ithin the temporal bone

Facial nerve

60

The facial nerve exits the temporal bone via the

Stylomastoid foramen

61

The facial nerve exits the temporal bone via the sylomastoid foramen where it provides MOTOR innervation to the

Stylohyoid and posterior belly of the digastric muscles

62

The facial nerve exits the temporal bone via the sylomastoid foramen where it provides SENSORY innervation to the

Skin posterior to the ear

63

The facial nerve continues through the parotid gland to course ANTERIORLY and MEDIALLY to provide motor innervation to the

Muscles of facial expression

64

Branches from the facial nerve within the facial canal

Greater petrosal nerve

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The greater petrosal nerve exits the inner ear via the hiatus for the greater petrosal nerve to enter the

Middle Cranial Fossa

66

Traverses the superior aspect of the foramen lacerum and enters the pterygoid canal to reach the pterygopalatine fossa

Greater petrosal nerve

67

Branches from the facial nerve within the facial canal to enter the middle ear cavity

Chorda Tympani nerve

68

The chorda tympani nerve exits the middle ear cavity via the

Petrotympanic fissure

69

The chorda tympani nerve exits the middle ear cavity via the petrotympanic fissure to enter the

Infratemporal fossa

70

Branches from the facial nerve within the facial canal to enter the middle ear cavity where it innervates the stapedius muscle

Nerve to stapedius

71

The glossopharyngeal nerve branches into the

Tympanic and Lesser Petrosal Nerves

72

Enters the neck via the Jugular foramen

Glossopharyngeal nerve

73

The glossopharyngeal nerve enters the neck via the jugular foramen. It then courses LATERAL to the

Stylopharyngeus Muscle

74

The glossopharyngeal nerve innervates the stylopharnheus muscle and then enters the

Oropharynx between the superior and middle constrictor muscles

75

Here, the glossopharyngeal nerve innervates the

Pharyngeal mucosa and continues to posterior 1/3 of the tongue

76

What innervates the posterior 1/3 of the tongue

Glossopharyngeal nerve

77

Branches from the glossopharyngeal nerve within the neck and enters the middle ear cavity to form the tympanic plexus

Tympanic nerve

78

Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the tympanic nerve leave the tympanic plexus as the

Lesser petrosal nerve

79

The lesser petrosal nerve then exits the middle ear cavity via the

Hiatus for the lesser petrosal nerve

80

The lesser petrosal nerve exits the middle ear cavity via the hiatus for the lesser petrosal nerve to enter the

Middle cranial fossa

81

The lesser petrosal nerve then exits the skull through the

-enters infratemporal fossa

Foramen ovale

82

Arterial supply to the head and neck is substantial and is provided by branches from the

Subclavian and Carotid arteries

83

Branches from these four (right and left) major arteries then freely anastomose with one another to provide excellent

Collateral circulation through head and neck

84

In general, branches from the SUBCLAVIAN artery supply the

Brain and deep neck

85

The common carotid artery bifurcates at the level of

C4

86

The common carotid artery bidurcates at the level of the C4 vertebral body into the

Internal and external carotid arteries

87

Has ZERO branches in the neck and supplies mostly the brain

Internal carotid artery

88

Supplies all other regions not supplied by the internal carotid artery

External carotid artery

89

What are the three subclavian arterial branches?

1.) Vertebral branch
2.) Thyrocervical trunk
3.) Costocervical trunk

90

The vertebral branch of the subclavian artery supplies the

Deep neck, brain, and spinal cord

91

The thyrocervical trunk is made up of which three branches?

1.) Inferior thyroid artery
2.) Suprascapular artery
3.) Transverse cervical artery

92

The branches of the thyrocervical trunk (inferior thyroid, suprascapular, and transverse cervical arteries) supply which regions?

Deep neck, thyroid gland, and shoulder

93

The costocervical trunk supplies which regions?

Deep neck only

94

What are the three branches of the internal carotid artery?

1.) Opthalmic artery
2.) Middle cerebral artery
3.) Anterior cerebral artery

95

The opthalmic artery supplies the

Orbit and supraorbital face

96

The middle cerebral artery supplies the

Brain

97

The anterior cerebral artery supplies the

Brain

98

What are the 8 branches of the external carotid artery?

1.) Superior thyroid artery
2.) Ascending pharyngeal artery
3.) Lingual artery
4.) Facial artery
5.) Occipital artery
6.) Posterior Auricular artery
7.) Maxillary artery
8.) Superficial temporal artery

99

The superior thyroid artery supplies the

Thyroid gland

100

The ascending pharyngeal artery supplies the

Pharynx

101

The lingual artery supplies the

Floor of the mouth and tongue

102

The facial artery supplies the

Superficial and deep face

103

The occipital artery supplies the

Posterior neck and scalp

104

The posterior auricular artery supplies the

Posterior ear and scalp

105

The maxillary artery branches into which 8 arteries?

1.) Deep auricular
2.) Muscular branches
3.) Middle meningeal
4.) Inferior alveolar
5.) Posterior superior alveolar
6.) Sphenopalantine
7.) Descending palatine
8.) Infraorbital

106

The maxillary artery and its branches supply the

Ear, muscles of mastication, meninges, mandibular and maxillary teeth, nasal cavity, palate, orbit, and infraorbital face

107

The superficial temporal artery supplies the

Superficial temple

108

What are the 5 important anastomoses of the head and neck?

1.) External carotid - Subclavian
2.) Internal carotid - subclavian
3.) Right external carotid -Left external carotid
4.) Right subclavian - Left subclavian
5.) Internal carotid - External carotid

109

The external carotid - subclavian anastomoses are an anastomoses between the

Superior and inferior thyroid arteries

110

The internal carotid -Subclavian anastomoses is an anastomoses between the

Internal carotid and vertebrobasilar system

111

The right external carotid and left external carotid anastamoses is an anastamoses between the

Superior thyroid and superior thyroid artery and the facial and facial artery

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