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Flashcards in Skeletal System Deck (35):
1

Bursae are _____ _____ containing ________ fluid. They help prevent ______ between structures.

Bursae are CLOSED SACS containing SYNOVIAL fluid. They help prevent FRICTION between structures.

2

tendons

connect muscle to bone

3

ligaments

connect bone to bone

4

skeletal system functions

- framework
- maintains position
- stability
- shape
- storage for calcium
- hematopoietic tissue

5

Skeletal system tissues consist of ____ _____ and ______ intracellular _______ ______ _____.

Skeletal system tissues consist of LIVING CELLS and NONLIVING intracellular FIBROUS PROTEIN MATRIX.

6

Skeletal system matrix includes _______ and _______ materials. It also includes ______ and ______.

Skeletal system matrix includes COLLAGENOUS and ELASTIC materials. It also includes OSTEOCALCIN and OSTEOPONTIN

7

Cartilage is a _____, ______ type of ______ tissue. It has a _____ _____-bearing capacity and lacks _____ ______. It is very ____.

Cartilage is a FIRM, FLEXIBLE type of CONNECTIVE tissue. It has a HIGH WEIGHT-bearing capacity and lacks BLOOD VESSELS. It is very THIN.

8

3 types of cartilage

1. elastic - provides flexibility
2. hyaline - forms articulating surfaces
3. fibrocartilage - i.e. IV disks, symphysis

9

Cartilage is formed by _______. Chondrocytes are located in ______ surrounded by ______ _____ (gel) of collagen/ground substance.
If gel hardens, chondrocytes ___ due to lack of diffusion of ______ and ______.

Cartilage is formed by CHONDROCYTES. Chondrocytes are located in LACUNAE surrounded by CARTILAGE PROTEIN (gel) of collagen/ground substance.
If gel hardens, chondrocytes DIE due to lack of diffusion of NUTRIENTS and OXYGEN.

10

Bone has an intracellular ______ made of ____ _____ and tissues and ______ _____. It has great ______/______ strength.

Bone has intracellular MATRIX made of LIVING CELLS and tissues and INORGANIC SALTS. It has great TENSILE/COMPRESSIBLE strength.

11

______ bone is formed in ______, which is called ______ bone. Immature bone is called _____ bone.

MATURE bone is formed in LAYERS, which is called LAMELLAR bone. Immature bone is called WOVEN bone.

12

The _____ of the bone is the membrane ______ the bone. It's outer layer is _____ and the inner layer is ______. It's a rich source of _____ i.e. ________ cells.

The PERIOSTEUM of the bone is the membrane COVERING the bone. It's outer layer is FIBROUS and the inner layer is OSTEOGENIC. It's a rich source of CELLS i.e. OSTEOPROGENITOR cells.

13

The _______ lines the _____ spaces of _____ bone, _______ cavities, and ______ canals of compact bone. It contains many __________ cells.

The ENDOSTEUM lines the INNER spaces of SPONGY bone, MEDULLARY cavities, and HALVERSIAN canals of compact bone. It contains many OSTEOPROGENITOR cells.

14

long bone components

- diaphysis = shaft
- epiphysis = ends of bone
- metaphysis = between diaphysis and epiphysis in growing bones

15

After puberty, the ______ and ______ merge.

After puberty, the METAPHYSIS and EPIPHYSIS merge.

16

Spongy (________) bone are composed of ______/______ which form ____-____ pattern lined with _______ cells filled with ______. They compose the interior of ____ bones, epiphysis, and metaphysis.

Spongy (CANCELLOUS) bone are composed of SPICULES/TRABECULAE which form LATTICE-LIKE pattern lined with OSTEOGENIC cells filled with MARROW. They compose the interior of FLAT bones, epiphysis, and metaphysis.

17

Compact (_____) bone forms the ____ shell and more _____ than cancellous bone. It is a densely packed ____ matrix. It is the main component of ______ bones.

Compact (CORTICAL) bone forms the OUTER shell and more RIGID than cancellous bone. It is a densely packed CALCIUM matrix. It is the main component of TUBULAR bones.

18

2 types of bone marrow

1. yellow marrow
2. red marrow

19

Yellow marrow is composed of ____ cells and found in _____ cavity of ____ bones.

Yellow marrow is composed of FAT cells and found in MEDULLARY cavity of LONG bones.

20

Red marrow are located in ______ bones and contain ___________ tissues producing all _____ cells.

Red marrow are located in CANCELLOUS bones and contain HEMATOPOIETIC tissues producing all BLOOD cells.

21

Osteoprogenitor cells are ________ stromal cells which are located in ______, ______, and ______ _____ when they are functioning. They become ______ when stimulated.

Osteoprogenitor cells are UNDIFFERENTIATED stromal cells which are located in PERIOSTEIUM, ENDOSTEUM, and EPIPHYSEAL PLATE when they are functioning. They become OSTEOBLASTS when stimulated.

22

Osteoblasts are found in ______, ______, ______ _____ and form _____ _____ (osteoid). Their number _______ with bone growth.

Osteoblasts are found in PERIOSTEUM, ENDOSTEUM, EPIPHYSEAL PLATE and form PROTEIN MATRIX (osteoid). Their number INCREASES with bone growth.

23

Osteocytes are derived from ______ as they _____ within bone. They are located in the _______ and contribute to bone ______ by sensing bone ____-____.

Osteocytes are derived from OSTEOBLASTS as they MATURE within bone. They are located in the LACUNAE and contribute to bone REMODELING by sensing bone STRESS-STRAIN.

24

Osteoclasts are bone ______ cells that release ____ into the resorptive cavity between the cell and bone, dissolving _____ _______. _______ _______ enzymes and _____ ___________ are also secreted to ______ bone protein ______.

Osteoclasts are bone REMOVING cells that release H+ into the resorptive cavity between the cell and bone, dissolving CALCIUM HYDROXYAPATITE. LYSOSOMAL HYDROLYTIC enzymes and MATRIX METALLOPROTEASES are also secreted to DEGRADE bone protein MATRIX.

25

Osteoclast activity are affected by _________. PTH, IL-6, and vitamin D _____ activity. Calcitonin, estrogen, and testosterone _____ cell _____ and ______.

Osteoclast activity are affected by HORMONES. PTH, IL-6, and vitamin D ENHANCE activity. Calcitonin, estrogen, and testosterone DECREASE cell NUMBER and FUNCTION.

26

______ growth predominates during the first ___-___ years. It starts as predominantly _____ _____ which begins _______ from the center out.

BONE growth predominates during the first 20-30 years. It starts as predominantly PROTEIN MATRIX which begins CALCIFYING from the center out.

27

Growth in length of bones occurs at the ______ ______ plate. ________ multiply and secrete cartilage into the _______, lengthening the _______. ________ enhance __________ deposition.

Growth in length of bones occurs at the EPIPHYSEAL GROWTH plate. CHONDROCYTES multiply and secrete cartilage into the METAPHYSIS, lengthening the DIAPHYSIS. OSTEOBLASTS enhance HYDROXYAPATITE deposition.

28

factors affecting bone growth

- separation or injury to the epiphyseal plate
- mechanical stress
- nutritional status
- hormones

29

Vitamin __ is required for ______ cross-linking. _____ can results as a deficiency.

Vitamin C is required for COLLAGEN cross-linking. SCURVY can results as a deficiency.

30

Vitamin __ deficiency can result in ______.

Vitamin D deficiency can result in RICKETS.

31

________ hormone ______ serum ______ when serum calcium is low. PTH _____ osteoclast activity, enhances calcium ________, and enhances vitamin __ activation in the _____.

PARATHYROID hormone INCREASES serum CALCIUM when serum calcium is low. PTH INCREASES osteoclast activity, enhances calcium REABSORPTION, and enhances vitamin D activation in the KIDNEYS.

32

______ is secreted by the _________ (C cells) of the _______. Calcitonin is released is response to ______ serum _____ or elevated ______.

CALCITONIN is secreted by the PARAFOLLICULAR (C cells) of the THYROID. Calcitonin is released is response to ELEVATED serum CALCIUM or elevated GASTRIC.

33

______ reduces blood calcium by inhibiting _____ absorption from the GI tract, inhibiting _____ activity, inhibiting ______ calcium and phosphate reabsorption.

CALCITONIN reduces blood calcium by inhibiting CALCIUM absorption from the GI tract, inhibiting OSTEOCLAST activity, inhibiting KIDNEY calcium and phosphate reabsorption.

34

Vitamin ___ is a ____-soluble vitamin. It increases _____ and ______ absorption from the ___ tract and _____, stimulate ______ activity, and _______ serum calcium and phosphate.

Vitamin D is a FAT-soluble vitamin. It increases CALCIUM and PHOSPHATE absorption from the GI tract and KIDNEY, stimulate OSTEOCLAST activity, and INCREASES serum calcium and phosphate.

35

2 types of Vitamin D

1. cholecalciferol (vitamin D3, most active)
2. ergocalciferol (vitamin D2 in vitamin pills)