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A Level - Anatomy And Physiology > Skeletal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skeletal System Deck (50):
1

Name the 5 different types bone

Flat bones
Long bones
Irregular bones
Short bones
Sesamoid bones

2

Where in the body can you find flat bones?

Sternum, ribs, cranium, pelvis

3

What is the role of flat bones?

They protect internal organs and act as suitable sites for muscular attachment

4

Give examples of long bones

Femur, humerus, radius, tibia, phalanges

5

What is the role of long bones?

They act as levers for movement and sites for blood cell production

6

Give an example of an irregular bones

Vertebrae

7

Give an example of a short bone

Carpals and tarsals

8

Give an example of a sesamoid bone

Patella

9

What role do sesamoid bones have?

They ease joint movement and resist compression

10

Which bones make up the axial skeleton?

Cranium, Sternum, rib cage, vertebral column

11

Define the term 'joint'

Where two or more bones meet

12

What is a ligament?

A tough band of fibrous, slightly elastic connective tissue that attaches bone to bone

13

What is articular cartilage?

Smooth tissue which covers the surface of articulating. Ones to absorb shock and allow friction-free movement

14

What is the role of ligaments?

Connect bone to bone
Stabilise joints during movement

15

What is the role of synovial fluid?

Reduces friction and nourishes articular cartilage

16

What is the role of articular cartilage?

Absorbs shock and allows friction-free movement

17

What is the joint capsule?

A fibrous sac with an inner synovial membrane

18

What is the function of the joint capsule?

It encloses and strengthens the joint secreting synovial fluid

19

What is a bursa?

A closed, fluid-filled sac found where tendons run over bones

20

What is the function of a bursa?

It reduces friction between tendons and bones

21

Name the 3 planes of movement

Sagittal plane
Frontal plane
Transverse plane

22

Where is the sagittal plane?

It divides the body into left and right

23

Where is the frontal plane?

It divides the body into front and back

24

Where is the transverse plane?

It divides the body into upper and lower parts

25

Name the 5 types of synovial joint

Hinge joint
Pivot joint
Ball and socket joint
Gliding joint
Condyloid joint

26

Where can you find a hinge joint?

Elbow, knee and ankle

27

Where can you find a pivot joint?

Radio-ulnar joint
Between the axis and atlas at the top of the vertebrae

28

Where can you find a gliding joint?

The spine

29

Where can you find a ball and socket joint?

The hip and shoulder

30

Where can you find a condyloid joint?

The wrist

31

What is flexion?

Movement which decreases the joint angle

32

What is extension?

Movement which increases the joint angle

33

What is plantarflexion?

Pointing the toes

34

What is abduction?

Movement of the limbs away from the midline of the body

35

What is adduction?

Movement of the limbs towards the midline of the body

36

What is dorsiflexion?

Bringing the toes upwards closer to the tibia

37

What is horizontal flexion?

This occurs when a limb is parallel to the ground and the articulating bone moves closer to the midline of the body

38

What is horizontal extension?

When a limb is parallel to the ground and the articulating bone moves away from the midline of the body

39

What is rotation?

Movement where articulating bones turn about their longitudinal axis

40

Which movements occur in the sagittal plane?

Flexion and extension, plantarflexion and dorsiflexion

41

Which movements occur in the frontal plane?

Abduction and addiction

42

Which movements occur in the transverse plane?

Horizontal flexion, horizontal extension, medial and lateral rotation

43

Which plane does flexion occur in?

sagittal

44

Which plane does abduction occur in?

frontal

45

Which plane does horizontal flexion occur in?

transverse

46

Which bones articulate the knee joint?

femur and tibia

47

Which bones articulate the ankle joint?

tibia, fibula and talus

48

Which bones articulate the shoulder joint?

scapula and humerus

49

Which bones articulate the elbow joint?

humerus, radius, ulna

50

Which bones articulate the hip joint?

Pelvic Girdle and Femur