Flashcards in Skeletal System Deck (50):
Name the 5 different types bone
Where in the body can you find flat bones?
Sternum, ribs, cranium, pelvis
What is the role of flat bones?
They protect internal organs and act as suitable sites for muscular attachment
Give examples of long bones
Femur, humerus, radius, tibia, phalanges
What is the role of long bones?
They act as levers for movement and sites for blood cell production
Give an example of an irregular bones
Give an example of a short bone
Carpals and tarsals
Give an example of a sesamoid bone
What role do sesamoid bones have?
They ease joint movement and resist compression
Which bones make up the axial skeleton?
Cranium, Sternum, rib cage, vertebral column
Define the term 'joint'
Where two or more bones meet
What is a ligament?
A tough band of fibrous, slightly elastic connective tissue that attaches bone to bone
What is articular cartilage?
Smooth tissue which covers the surface of articulating. Ones to absorb shock and allow friction-free movement
What is the role of ligaments?
Connect bone to bone
Stabilise joints during movement
What is the role of synovial fluid?
Reduces friction and nourishes articular cartilage
What is the role of articular cartilage?
Absorbs shock and allows friction-free movement
What is the joint capsule?
A fibrous sac with an inner synovial membrane
What is the function of the joint capsule?
It encloses and strengthens the joint secreting synovial fluid
What is a bursa?
A closed, fluid-filled sac found where tendons run over bones
What is the function of a bursa?
It reduces friction between tendons and bones
Name the 3 planes of movement
Where is the sagittal plane?
It divides the body into left and right
Where is the frontal plane?
It divides the body into front and back
Where is the transverse plane?
It divides the body into upper and lower parts
Name the 5 types of synovial joint
Ball and socket joint
Where can you find a hinge joint?
Elbow, knee and ankle
Where can you find a pivot joint?
Between the axis and atlas at the top of the vertebrae
Where can you find a gliding joint?
Where can you find a ball and socket joint?
The hip and shoulder
Where can you find a condyloid joint?
What is flexion?
Movement which decreases the joint angle
What is extension?
Movement which increases the joint angle
What is plantarflexion?
Pointing the toes
What is abduction?
Movement of the limbs away from the midline of the body
What is adduction?
Movement of the limbs towards the midline of the body
What is dorsiflexion?
Bringing the toes upwards closer to the tibia
What is horizontal flexion?
This occurs when a limb is parallel to the ground and the articulating bone moves closer to the midline of the body
What is horizontal extension?
When a limb is parallel to the ground and the articulating bone moves away from the midline of the body
What is rotation?
Movement where articulating bones turn about their longitudinal axis
Which movements occur in the sagittal plane?
Flexion and extension, plantarflexion and dorsiflexion
Which movements occur in the frontal plane?
Abduction and addiction
Which movements occur in the transverse plane?
Horizontal flexion, horizontal extension, medial and lateral rotation
Which plane does flexion occur in?
Which plane does abduction occur in?
Which plane does horizontal flexion occur in?
Which bones articulate the knee joint?
femur and tibia
Which bones articulate the ankle joint?
tibia, fibula and talus
Which bones articulate the shoulder joint?
scapula and humerus
Which bones articulate the elbow joint?
humerus, radius, ulna