Skeletal System: Articular System, Skull and Cranial Fossae Flashcards Preview

Gross Anatomy > Skeletal System: Articular System, Skull and Cranial Fossae > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skeletal System: Articular System, Skull and Cranial Fossae Deck (164):
1

Functions of Bones

Support, protection, body movement

2

Forms a rigid framework to which the muscles of the body are attached; provides structural support

Skeletal system

3

encloses the brain

Skull

4

encloses the spinal cord

Vertebral column

5

(made of ribs and sternum: manubrium, sternal body and xiphoid process) – protects the heart, lungs (largest), great vessels, liver and spleen

Rib cage

6

T or F: Sites where blood cells are produced are protected within the spongy bone tissue of certain bones

T

7

2 attachments of muscles

origin and insertion

8

T or F: Skeletal muscles use bones as levers (with joints acting as pivots) to move the body

T

9

Process of blood cell formation

Hemopoiesis

10

T or F: All blood cells are made in the marrow (specifically white bone marrow) of certain bones

F, red bone marrow

11

Blood cell production is influenced by ________ which is produced by the kidneys which induces erythropoiesis

Erythropoietin

12

Lipid is stored in the adipose tissue within the _________ of certain bones

medullary cavity

13

Adipose tissues and lipid contents are known as ________ .

yellow bone marrow

14

Mineral which gives bones firmness and strength

Calcium and Phosphorous

15

Percentage of body's calcium stored in bones

99%

16

Percentage of body's phosphorous stored in bones

85%

17

Occurs throughout life (embryo -> adulthood)

Bone formation

18

Begins at about 4th week of embryonic development

Ossification/Bone formation

19

Bone tissues are derived from specialized migratory cells of mesoderm known as
_________

Mesenchyme

20

T or F: Before week 8, bones are made of fibrous membrane cartilage.

T

21

T or F: X-ray readings of children appear lighter due to incomplete ossification.

F, darker.

22

2 routes of ossification

Endochondral and Intramembranous

23

Stages of Endochondral Ossification

1. Formation of bone collar around hyaline cartilage
2. Cavitation of HC within the cartilage model
3. Invasion of internal cavities by the periosteal bud and spongy bone formation
4. Formation of medullary cavity as ossi continues
5. Ossification of epiphyses; completed = HC remains only in the epiphyseal plates and articular cartilages

24

T or F: Hyaline cartilage remains only in the epiphyseal plates and articular cartilages when ossification is completed

T

25

Embryonic Mesenchymal Cells -> bone

Intramembranous Ossification

26

Embryonic mesenchymal cells -> chondroblasts -> cartilage matrix -> bone

Endochondral ossification

27

Ossification: Direct Mineralization from mesenchyme

Intramembranous Ossification

28

Intramembranous Ossification: example of bones

skull cap (calvaria), some facial bones, clavicle, scapula, pelvis, and part of mandible

29

Avascular organ; part of the fibrous layer of the eyes with no blood supply

Cornea

30

Cornea: Necessary nutrients are received with the help of fluid from _________

Ciliary humor

31

Due to the absence of direct blood supply, rejection after cornea transplant is controlled by _______ instead of immunosuppressant drugs.

Steroids

32

Bone classification accrdg to origin

Intramembranous and Endochondral

33

Bone classification accrdg to structure

Compact bone and spongy/cancellous bone

34

Commonly seen as a superficial layer of bone that is very hard and dense solid

Compact Bone

35

Consists of precise arrangements of microscopic cylindrical structures oriented parallel to the long ax

Compact Bone

36

Column-like structures that run parallel to the long axis of the bone; Matrix is laid down in concentric rings (lamellae)

Haversian System

37

Parts of Haversian System

Lamellae, Central Canal, Lacunae, Canaliculi, Perforationg (Volkmann's) Canal

38

Parts of Haversian System: concentric layers that surround the central canals

Lamellae

39

Parts of Haversian System: contains minute nutrient vessels and nerves

Central canal

40

Parts of Haversian System: spaces that contain osteocytes connected to one another by tiny channels called canaliculi

Lacunae

41

Parts of Haversian System: tiny channels that process osteocytes and connect lacunae

Canaliculi

42

Parts of Haversian System: connect osteons with blood vessels and nerves

Perforating (Volkmann’s) Canal

43

Located deep to the compact bone tissue

Spongy/Cancellous Bone

44

Porous; with inner layer of honey-comb, flat, minute, needle-like projections called Trabeculae

Spongy/Cancellous Bone

45

inner layer of honey-comb, flat, minute, needle-like projections in Spongy/Cancellous Bone

Trabeculae

46

Bone classification accrdg to location

Axial and Appendicular

47

Found at the “axis” or the central line of the body

Axial

48

Bone classification accrdg to location: 80 bones

Axial

49

Found within the “appendages”; 126 bones

Appendicular

50

Netter's number of appendicular bones

134 bones (8 sesamoid bones on both hands and feet)

51

Bone classification accrdg to shape

Long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid bones

52

Much longer than they are wider; Bones of the limbs (usually has a shaft and 2 expanded ends)

Long bones

53

Cuboidal in shape

Short bones

54

Example of Short bone:

Carpal Bones: Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetral, Pisiform, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate
Tarsal Bones: Talus, Calcaneus, Navicular bone, cuboid, 3 cuneiform

55

Thin, flattened and slightly curved type of bone

Flat bone

56

Other bones which cannot be classified as long, short or flat

Irregular bone

57

Ex. of flat bones

Scapulae, sternum, ribs, most boned of skull, facial bones except sphenoid and ethmoid

58

Ex. of irregular bones

Sphenoid and ethmoid, vertebrae, pelvic bone

59

Small nodules of bone; Found in certain tendons where they rub over bony surfaces; Protects tendon from excessive wear and tear by altering the direction of pull of a tendon

Sesamoid bones

60

Ex. of sesamoid bone

Patella

61

Point of articulation between bones; May or may not permit movement

Joint

62

Functions of joint:

o Weight bearing (knee and hip joints)
o Movement
o Stability (Hip joint)
o Lubrication

63

Joints accrdg to structure

Synovial, fibrous, cartilaginous

64

Bones are separated by joint cavity lubricated by synovial fluid; Enclosed in a fibrous joint capsule

Synovial joint

65

Type of joint: Shoulder, hip, elbow, knee, carpal, interphalangeal

Synovial joint

66

Held together by collagenous fibers; From the matrix of one bone into the matrix of the next; No joint cavity

Fibrous joint

67

Type of joint: Skull sutures, teeth joints (Gomphoses), radio-ulnar joints, tibio-fibular joints

Fibrous joint

68

Bones held togethers by cartilage; No joint cavity

Cartilaginous joint

69

Type of joint: Epiphyseal plate of long bones (where bone growth occurs), costosternal joints, pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs

Cartilaginous joint

70

Pubic symphysis accommodate pregnancy through the production of _____ hormone

Relaxin

71

Joints according to articulation surfaces:

Plane, Hinge, Pivot, Condyloid, Saddle, Ball and Socket

72

Type of joint: Flat and allows short slipping/gliding movements

Plane

73

Type of joint: Cylindrical projection of one bone fits into a trough-shaped process; For flexion and extension

Hinge

74

Type of joint: Rounded end of one bone protrudes into a ring; For rotation

Pivot

75

Type of joint: Oval articular surface of one bone fits into complementary depression
 For flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction

Condyloid

76

Type of joint: Concave and convex areas fit one another

Saddle

77

Type of joint: Spherical or semi-spherical articulates with cup-like socket
 Allows freedom of motion (combines condyloid + medial & lateral rotation)

Ball and socket

78

Type of joint: Elbow joint, interphalangeal joints

Hinge

79

Type of joint: Atlantoaxial, radio-ulnar joint

Pivot

80

Type of joint: Radiocarpal, metacarpophalangeal joints

Condyloid

81

Type of joint: Carpo-metacarpal joints of thumb

Saddle

82

Type of joint: Shoulders

Ball and socket

83

Type of joint: Intercarpal, intertarsal

Plane

84

Joints according to degree of movement

Diarthroses, amphiarthroses, synarthroses

85

Freely movable joint

Diarthroses

86

Slightly movable joint

Amphiarthroses

87

Non-movable joint

Synarthroses

88

Joints accrdg to joint movement

Uniaxial, Biaxial, Multiaxial

89

Type of joint: Move in 1 plane

Uniaxial

90

Type of joint: Move in 2 plane

Biaxial

91

Type of joint: Move in 3 plane

Multiaxial

92

Articulating surfaces of shoulder joint

round head of humerus & glenoid fossa

93

Articulating surfaces of elbow joint

trochlea and capitulum of humerus & trochlear notch of the ulna and head of radius

94

Articulating surfaces of wrist joint

distal end of radius and articular disc above & scaphoid, lunate and triquetral bones

95

Articulating surfaces of hip joint

Head of femur & acetabulum (commonly fractured bones, esp in girls)

96

Articulating surfaces of knee joint

2 articulation system - Lower end of femur & femur; round condyles of femur & condyles of tibia

97

Articulating surfaces of ankle joint

Lower end of tibia and 2 malleoli & body of talus

98

T or F: Fibula is connected to patella and can therefore be used as graft (along with floating ribs)

F, not connected

99

Disadvantage of freely movable joints

maiipit blood vessels

100

How many bones are there in the skull?

22 bones

101

Bones of the skull are attached to each other by _____, are immobile, and form the cranium.

Sutures

102

Divisions of the skull

Cranium, Viscerocranium, Auditory ossicles

103

2 division of cranium

Calvaria and Base

104

How many bones are there in the cranium?

8 bones

105

Paired bones of the cranium

Parietal and Temporal bones

106

Unpaired bones of the cranium

Frontal, Occipital, Sphenoid, Ethmoid bones

107

Floor of the cranial cavity

Base

108

upper domed part, covers the cranial cavity containing the brain

Calvaria/Vault

109

 Facial skeleton; composed of 8 bones
 Lower anterior part
 Make up the contour of the face

Viscerocranium

110

Paired bones of the viscerocranium

Maxillary, Lacrimal (near the orbit), Nasal, Zygomatic (forms the cheeks), Inferior nasal conchae (lateral projections of the nasal cavity), Palatine

111

Unpaired bones of the viscerocranium

Vomer

112

Found in the middle ear and functions to transmit vibrations of tympanic membranes; First bones to be fully ossified during development and are essentially mature at birth

Auditory ossicles

113

Unlike other bones, they lack a surrounding layer of osteogenic periosteum.

Auditory ossicles

114

Type of joint: auditory ossicles

synovial

115

T or F: Smallest joint is found between incus and stapes (synovial, movable)

T

116

3 interconnected bones of auditory ossicles

Malleus, Incus, Stapes

117

Largest ossicle and possesses a head, a neck, a long process or handle, and anterior process, and a lateral process. It is connected to the tympanic membrane

Malleus

118

Possesses a large body and two processes. It is connected to the malleus.

Incus

119

Has a head, a neck, two limbs, and a base. It is connected to the incus and the lateral wall of the internal ear at the oval window; Smallest ossicle

Stapes

120

T or F: Mandible is part of the cranium nor part of the facial skeleton. It is united to the skull by the mobile temporomandibular joint.

F, not part

121

immovable joints which unite the bones of the skull

Suture

122

connective tissue between the bones of the skull; consists of the periosteum covering the outer surface become continuous with the endosteum covering the surface of the bone.

Suture ligament

123

Major Sutures of the Skull

Coronal suture, Sagittal suture, Lambdoid suture

124

Suture between the frontal and parietal bones

Coronal suture

125

Suture between the paired parietal bone

Sagittal suture

126

Suture between the parietal and occipital bones

Lambdoid suture

127

Landmarks of the skull

Bregma, Lambda, Pterion

128

junction where the coronal and the sagittal sutures meet

Bregma

129

junction where the sagittal and lambdoid sutures meet

Lambda

130

area where the sutures between the parietal, sphenoid, frontal, and temporal squama converge or meet; Weakest part

Pterion

131

premature closure of skull suture

Craniosyntosis

132

separates the bones of the vault that are not closely knit at the sutures. At these sites, the sutures form wide areas of fibrous tissue.

Fontanelles

133

2 types of fontanelle

anterior and posterior fontanelle

134

Most prominent fontanelle; “soft spot”
 Lies between the frontal bone and the two parietal bones behind
 Diamond-shaped

Anterior fontanelle

135

Bounded by the parietal bones anteriorly and the occipital bone posteriorly
 Triangular shape

Posterior fontanelle

136

Palpation of the fontanelles during infancy, especially the anterior and posterior ones, enables physicians to determine the:

1. Progress of growth
2. Degree of hydration
3. Intracranial pressure
4. Pulse of cerebral arteries

137

Regions in the cranial fossa

Anterior, Middle and Posterior

138

any of three large depressions in the anterior, middle, and posterior aspects of the floor of the cranial cavity.

cranial fossa

139

Lodges the frontal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres
 Bones forming the anterior cranial fossa: frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid bones

Anterior cranial fossa

140

Anterior cranial fossa: crest for attachment in the midline

Falx cerebri

141

Lodge the temporal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres.
 Bones forming the cranial fossa: sphenoid, temporal, and parietal bones

Middle cranial fossa

142

Weakest cranial fossa because it has more holes/ foramina
 fracture in this area causes otorrhea

Middle cranial fossa

143

Lodges the parts of the hindbrain, namely, the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata
 Bones forming the cranial fossa: Temporal and occipital bones

Posterior cranial fossa

144

Openings in the anterior cranial fossa

Foramen cecum
Anterior ehtmoidal foramen
Foramina in the cribriform plate
Posterior ethmoidal foramen

145

Structure transmitted in: Foramen cecum

Emissary vein

146

Structure transmitted in: Anterior ethmoidal foramen

Anterior ethmoidal artery, vein, and nerve

147

Structure transmitted in: Foramina in the cribriform plate

Olfactory nerves

148

Structure transmitted in: Posterior ethmoidal foramen

Posterior ethmoidal artery, vein, and nerve

149

Middle cranial fossa openings

Optic canal
Superior orbital fissure
Foramen Rotundum
Foramen Ovale
Foramen Spinosum
Foramen Lacerum
Carotid Canal

150

Structure transmitted in: optic canal

Optic nerve (II);
Opthalmic artery

151

Structure transmitted in: Superior orbital fissure

Oculomotor nerve (III); Trochlear nerve (IV); Lacrimal, frontal, and nasociliary nerves (V1); Abducent nerve (VI); Superior ophthalmic vein

152

Structure transmitted in: Foramen rotundum

Maxillary nerve (V2)

153

Structure transmitted in: Foramen Ovale

Mandibular nerve (V3);
Lesser petrosal nerve

154

Structure transmitted in: Foramen spinosum

Middle meningeal artery

155

Structure transmitted in: Foramen lacerum

Filled by cartilage and fibrous tissue (in the inferior opening);
Greater petrosal nerve

156

Structure transmitted in: carotid canal

Internal carotid artery

157

Posterior cranial fossa: openings

Foramen magnum
Hypoglossal canal
Jugular foramen
Internal acoustic meatus

158

Structure transmitted in: Foramen magnum

Medulla oblongata, spinal part of accessory nerve, and vertebral arteries

159

Structure transmitted in: hypoglossal canal

Hypoglossal nerve (XII)

160

Structure transmitted in: Jugular foramen

Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX); Vagus nerve (X); Accessory nerves (XI); Sigmoid sinus becomes internal jugular vein

161

Structure transmitted in: internal acoustic meatus

Facial nerves (VII); Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII);

162

Type of joint: temporomandibular joint

Synovial

163

Articulation of temporomandibular joint

Articulation: occurs between the articular tubercle and the anterior portion of the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone above and the head (condyloid process) of the mandible

164

Function of Temperomandibular joint

Depression, Elevation, Protrusion, Retraction, Lateral chewing movements