Skeltal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Skeltal System Deck (85):
1

Axial skelton includes

skull
spinal column
sacrum
ribs
sternum

2

Appendicular skeleton includes

shoulder girdle:
clavicle
scapula

arms:
humerus
ulna
radius
carpals
metacarpals
phalanges

pelvic girdle:
pelvis

legs:
femur
patella
tibia
fibula
tarsals
metatarsals
phalanges

3

Types of bones

Long
Short
Flat
Irregular
Pneumatic
Sesamoid

4

Describe pneumatic bones

- air cells

5

Eg of pneumatic bone

Nose bones

6

Where are irregular bones found

Facial
Vertebrae

7

Where are flat bones found

Sternum
Ribs
Scapula
Cranial
Ileum

8

Describe flat bones

Middle = spongy with no cavity

9

Spongy bone structures found in bones is referred to as

Diploe tissue

10

Diploe is found in which bones

Short
Irregular
Flat

11

Short bones are found

Carpal
Tarsal

12

Long bones are found

Limbs

13

Describe sesamoid bones

Bone embedded in a tendon

14

Sesamoid bones include

Patella
Plantar surface of foot
Palmar surface of hand

15

Types of bone cells include

Osteocytes
Osteoblasts
Osteoclasts

16

Describe osteocytes

Produce bone extracellular matrix

17

Describe osteoblasts

Bone formation

18

Describe osteoclasts

Bone remodelling/resorption

19

The intracellular matrix of bone is composed of

Inorganic & organic matter

20

The role of intracellular matrix

Strength and resiliance

21

How many bones are there in the human body

206

22

Organic part of the intracellular matrix is composed of

Collagen
Protein
Carbs

23

The inorganic part of the intracellular matrix is composed of

CaCO3
Hydroxypeptide

24

A typical bone is made of two parts

The cortex
Medullary cavity

25

What is the cortex of a bone

The smooth/hard outer layer

26

What is the tissue of the cortex called

Cortical bone

27

What covers the outside of all cortical bones

Periosteum

28

What lines the inside of all cortical bones

Endosteum

29

The periosteum is divided into two further layers called

outer "fibrous layer" and inner "osteogenic"

30

Where is the medullary cavity found

Inner region of bone

31

What is found in the medullary cavity

Bone marrow

32

What is the function of red bone marrow

Blood production

33

What is the function of yellow bone marrow

Stores fat and is inactive in blood cell production
Can revert to red bone marrow

34

The medullary cavity has what type of tissue

Trabecular tissue

35

Describe traceular tissue

Thing plates -> scaffolding

36

Function of trabecular tissue

Good compressive strength -> resist static forces

37

Structural functions of bone

Protection
Structure
Levers for limb movement

38

Metabolic functions of bone

Blood formation
Remove foreign and toxic heavy metals
Stores minerals and salts

39

Does bone have a rich blood supply

Yes

40

What is cartilage

Specialised connective tissue

41

Is cartilage avascular

Yes

42

Three types of cartilage are

Hyaline
Fibro
Elastic

43

Describe hyaline cartilage

Found on articular surfaces
Parallel collagen fibres
Gloss
Aneural and avascular

44

Describe fibro cartilage

Dense
Irregular
Collagen
Strong and stiff
Aneural and avasc EXCEPT at periphery

45

Describe Elastic cartilage

yellow-ish
More flexible but returns to original shape.
Support that withstands repeated bending.
Greater proportion of elastic fibres.

46

Bone is derived from which germ layer

Mesoderm

47

The two types of bone ossification are

Endochondral
INtramembraneous

48

Endochonral ossification

Bone formation within a HYALINE model
Majority of bones

49

Intramembraneous ossification

Bone formation within FIBROUS tissue
Clavicle and skull.

50

When do bones first appear?

6-8 weeks

51

During development of a long bone, the bone is divided into the areas

The epiphysis
Diaphysis
Metaphysis

52

Describe location of the epiphysis

Either ends of the bone

53

Describe the location of the diaphysis

Middle of the bone

54

Describe the metaphysis

The zone of active maturation and transition from cartilage to bone

55

What is the epiphyseal growth plate

Hyaline cartilage b/w the epihysis and diaphysis
disappears epi and met fuse

56

What is the epiphyseal line

The remnants of the epiphyseal plate

57

Where does the primary centre of ossification

Diaphysis

58

Describe the nutrient artery

Majory artery supplying a long bone

59

Describe the nutrient foramen

Hole in which the nurtient artery enters

60

What is the role of the nutrient artery

Brings osteogenic cells

61

When do secondary centres of ossification develop

After birth

62

Where do secondary centres of ossification develop

Epiphysis and tuberosities

63

What are tuberosities

Sites of attachment

64

What are the four types of bone arteries

Nutrient
Periosteal
Metaphyseal
Epiphyseal

65

Describe periosteal artery

Smaller
Shaft
Supplies the periostium

66

Describe metaphyseal and epiphyseal arteries

End arteries
Don't communicate with each other due to epiphyseal plate

67

What is greenstick

Found in children, bones tend to bend more than break

68

What is the growing end of a bone

Occurs in small bones only
Have 1 epiphysis

69

The nutrient artery grows towards or away from the growing end of a bone

Away

70

What is haemopoiesis and what is responsible for it?

Red blood cell production
Red bone marrow

71

Which bone keeps most of it's red marrow throughout adult life?

Flat bone

72

In regards to bone marrow, what is the difference between children and adults?

Tons of red bone marrow in foetus, baby and young child.
Replaced by yellow marrow as we grow old

73

Yellow marrow

Mostly fat
Can revert to red if extra blood is needed

74

What is the bone tissue of the outer shell of bone called

Compact/cortical bone

75

What is the role of compact/cortical bone

Provides tensile strength

76

What is the inner spongy bone called?

Trabecular or cancellous bone

77

What is the role of trabeculae?

Creates a scaffold --> good compressive strength to resist static, weight bearing forces

78

What type of bone tissue provides TENSILE strength and what tissue provides COMPRESSIVE strength

Compact/cortical --> tensile
Spongy/trabecular --> compresive

79

Compound fracture

Bone protrudes out of skin

80

Simple fracture

Bone does NOT protrude out of skin

81

What embryonic origin is bone derived from?

Mesoderm

82

Where would you find the nutrient foramen?

It will be near the shorter end (i.e away from the end that has grown more).

83

osteoporosis

common in older people, resulting in loss of bone mineralisation

84

osteomalacia

Failure to properly mineralise bone earlier in life

85

For a fractured bone to heal you need

adequate immobilisation in the early stages;
- reasonably good alignment (bone not shattered into many pieces, and no chronic infection);
- extensive remodelling of bone over many months, even after function is restored.