Sketchy - Cephalosporins Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Sketchy - Cephalosporins Deck (27):
1

Class: Cephalosporins

Beta-lactams - binds PBPs halting peptidoglycan wall synthesis

2

Class: Cephalexin

1st gen cephalosporin

3

Class: Cefazolin

1st gen cephalosporin

4

Most common uses for 1st generation cephalosporins such as Cefazolin, Cephalexin

Gram pos bacteria - ie Staph and Strep

Second line for strep pharyngitis and cellulitis

5

Can Cefazolin and Cephalexin be used against gram negative bacteria?

Yes, some: Proteus, Klebsiella and E. Coli, ie uncomplicated UTI
"PEK"

6

Why is Cefazolin a first drug of choice for surgery prophylaxis?

It penetrates well into tissues
Cefazolin is a 1st gen cephalosporin

7

Class: Cefuroxime

2nd gen Cephalosporin

8

Class: Cefotetan

2nd gen Cephalosporin

9

Class: Cefoxitin

2nd gen Cephalosporin

10

Spectrum: 2nd gen Cephalosporins
Cefoxitin
Cefotetan
Cefuroxime

The same coverage as 1st generation (PEK + Staph/Strep)
with extended gram negative coverage: Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria, Serratia (HENS)

11

T/F: 2nd generation Cephalosporins are first-line agents.

FALSE, they are not used much anymore, but they CAN be used for:
Sinusitis
Otitis media
Mixed aerobe anaerobe infections
Lower RTIs ie from strep pneumo
Peritonitis

12

Class: Ceftriaxone

3rd gen cephalosporins

13

Class: Cefotaxime

3rd gen cephalosporins

14

Class: Ceftazidime

3rd gen cephalosporins

15

Take homes about 3rd gen cephalosporin spectrum

Extended gram negative coverage AND some can cross BBB

16

Which 3rd gen cephalosporins can cross the BBB?

Ceftriaxone
Cefotaxime

**Used to treat meningitis as first-line - usual culprits for meningitis are Strep pneumo, H. influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis

17

When treating meningitis, what antibiotic is often used in addition to Ceftriaxone to cover resistant strains of Strep pneumo?

Vancomycin

18

For young and old patients, what drug is added to Ceftriaxone to cover Listeria meningitis?

Ampicillin

19

Kinds of infections covered by 3rd gen cephalosporins:

CA and HA pneumonia (coverage of pseudomonas for hospital or ventilator acquired pneumonia);
Endocarditis (Strep viridans);
Gram neg GI bugs

20

Which 3rd gen cephalosporin is best used to treat Pseudomonas infection?

Ceftazidime

Ceftazz treats Pseudomonazz

21

Do 3rd gen cephalosporins cover MRSA?

No!!

Cefepime, a 4th generation cephalosporin, also has no MRSA coverage.

22

What is the first line treatment for gonorrhea?

A single IM dose of Ceftriaxone

23

What is highly recommended in the treatment of Lyme disease, especially when it involved arthritis or neurologic symptoms?

Ceftriaxone

24

What are the only things you need to know about Cefepime?

1. 4th gen cephalosporin
2. Active against Pseudomonas
3. Penetrates BBB
4. Broad spectrum

A big gun used in the treatment of patients with drug resistant systemic situations

25

Class: Ceftaroline

5th gen cephalosporin
*Broad spectrum*

26

Does Ceftaroline have MRSA coverage?

Yes!

27

What are the common modes of resistance acquired by bacteria against cephalosporins?

Altered PBPs
Extended spectrum beta-lactamases