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Flashcards in sketchy micro COPY Deck (42):
1

Name? 

Identification? 

Transmission?

Associated conditions?

Key facts?

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Staphylococcus aureus 

gram positive cocci (purple moses) 

Aureus- golden colonies on blood agar plate

Identification:

  • coagulase test(parting of red sea) 
  • catalase test (cat) : positive [gram positve and catalase positive = staph]
  • phage typing
  • mannitol fermentation (man tall wearing yellow)
  • beta hemolysis (red light bulb with B)

Transmission:

  • direct contact; food and waterborne for staphylococcal food poisoning 

Associated conditions:

  • staphylococcal skin infections: sties, pimples, carbuncles, impetigo of the newborn
  • staphylococcal toxemias: scalded skin syndrome and toxic shock syndrome (man with red head)
  • staphylococcal food posioning (camel with green lady and meats/dairy)

- Many strains of S. aureus produce penicillinase 

- Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [gesture of mercy]

 

2

Name? 

Vector?

Reservoir?

Symptoms?

Diagnosis?

Treatment?

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Borellia burgdorferi

(spirochete- dont gram stain due to thin walls) 

motility: axial filaments 

- causative agent of Lyme disease 

vector: a tick (Ixodes scapularis) --> Robin of Ixodes

reservoir= animals that harbor the tick= field mice and dusky-footed wood rat; third blood meal from deer

symptoms: 

a. initial stage: 

  • expanding bull's eye rash (bull's eye target) along with flu like symptoms developing within 2-10 days as the rash dissapears 

b. untreated: 

  • initial symptoms dissapear 
  • weeks/months later:
    • headache
    • meningitis
    • myocardial damage (heart shield)

c. left untreated:

  • 6 months or years later: 
    • chronic arthritis 
    • complications may involve the cardiovascular and nervous systems (arrow through straw mans head)

diagnosis: 

  • serological tests (ELISA) not reliable 
  • Clinical symptoms (rash) most common basis for diagnosis 
  • Wright stain, giemsa stain (Sir Wright, Sir Giemsa)

treatment: 

  • antibiotics: 
    • doxycycline (unicycle)
    • amoxycillin 
    • erythromycin
  • more difficult to treat past inital stage; long term intravenous therapy may be required 

 

3

Name? 

Transmission?

Symptoms?

Diagnosis? 

Treatment?

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Treponema pallidum

(spirochete--> spiral galaxy in corner, spiral staircase)  

--> causative agent of syphilis 

--> cannot be cultured in vitro 

Transmission: direct sexual contact 

Symptoms: 

  • Primary syphilis: 
    • painless chancre at site of infection (sundial poking astrologer) 
    • enlargement of regional lymph nodes
  • Secondary syphilis: solar system
    • rash on skin and mucous membranes
    • flu like symptoms 
    • loosening of teeth 
    • alopecia 
    • enlargement of epitrochlear lymph nodes
    • rash on palms/soles (astronaut in white suit with red hands and feet)
    • condylomo lata: bumpy planet...lotta bumps 
  • Latent syphilis: 
    • result if secondary syphilis is not treated 
    • can last for years without manifestation of the disease 
    • person thought to remain infectious for 1st 4 years of latency
  • Tertiary syphilis
    • develops in some patients after years without treatment 
    • gummas: soft growths with firm necrotic center: (large crater moon)
    • syphilitic arthritis 
    • weaking of blood vessels (syphilis targest root of aorta tree) 
    • heart damage (aorta tree) 
    • blindness (flash light in eyes)

Diagnosis: 

  • Clinical history 
  • Physical exam 
  • Dark field study (dark field galaxy) (dark microscopes)
  • Serological tests (VDRL)
  • Treponemal tests for confirmation

Treatment: 

  • Penicillin

 

4

Name? 

Shape?

Reproduction 

Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

  • Chemoheterotroph 
  • Vibroid 
  • Reproduces as a predator in the periplasmic space of gram negative bacteria

5

Name? 

Key Facts?

Transmission?

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Campylobacter spp.

Chemoheterotroph

  • second most common cause of diarrhea (gasteroenteritis) in the US 
    • self limiting disease, lasting less than a week
  • helical bacterium is part of intestinal flora of many animals especially sheep, cattle, dogs, cats, and chickens) 
  • transmission:
    • contaminated food and water 
    • contact with animals

Campylobacter jejuni

6

Helicobacter pylori 

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Helicobacter pylori 

* Chemoheterotrophs 

* Major factor in causing peptic ulcer disease which can lead to gastric cancer

7

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Pseudomonads:

  • gram negative rods (reddish hues) (red tub=rod)
  • motile: polar flagella 
  • found primarily in soil and water (water in tub)
  • resistant to many disinfectants/antibiotics 

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  • principal pathogen in hospital acquired infections 
  • has endotoxing and several exotoxins 
  • infections include: 
    • otitis externa 
    • urinary tract 
    • surgical wound infections 
    • dermatitis 
    • septicemia 
    • pneumonia 

* predisposing conditions usually involved 

Transmission: direct contact

Treatment: infection is difficult to treat with antibiotics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

Legionella pneumophila

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Legionella pneumophila

  • gram negative bacillus is causative agent of legionellosis ( Legionnaire's disease) 
  • noncommunicable; airborne infection 
  • symptoms: 
    • high fever 
    • cough 
    • general pneumonia symptoms 

9

Bordetella pertussis

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Bordetella pertussis

* gram negative coccobacillus 

  • causative agent of pertussis (whooping cough): tracheobronchitis 
  • primarily a childhood disease 
  • transmission: airborne 
  • virulent strains - encapsulated 
  • endotoxin and exotoxin are released when cell autolyses upon death 
  • symptoms: 
    • initial stages resembles a cold, which progresses to a deep cough as accumulation of mucus in trachea and bronchi occurs
    • convalescence (3rd stage of pertussis) can last for months 
  • vaccine: 
    • acellular vaccine is given to infants at 2, 4, 6, and 15 months of age as a part of DTaP vaccine

10

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

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Neisseria gonorrhoeae

* gram negative diplococcus 

  • causative agent of gonorrhea 
  • transmission: direct contact 
    • primary site of infection: 
      • usually the mucous membranes of the male's urethra and female's cervix
      • organism attaches to mucosa of genitals, oral-pharyngeal area, eyes and rectum via fimbriae (pili) 
  • symptoms: 
    • males: painful urination and a penile discharge of pus 
    • females: often asymptomatic until organism spreads to the uterus and uterine tubes 
  • untreated: 
    • males: may cause blockage of the urethra and sterility 
    • females: may cause a pelvic blockage of uterine tubes, sterility, and pelvic inflammatory disease 
    • both sexes: may become systemic infection 
  • diagnosis: males
    • symptoms 
    • gram stain of discharge 
    • culture of specimen 
    • DNA probes also used 
  • diagnosis: females 
    • culture of specimen no longer necessary 
    • DNA probes preferred

* Newborns: prevention of gonococcal opthalmia neonatorum 

  • Treatment: 
    • Penicillin 
    • Tetracycline 
    • Some strains are drug resistant 

 

 

 

 

 

11

Neisseria meningitidis

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Neisseria meningitidis

  • causative agent of 25% of cases of bacterial meningitidis 
  • "people in a herd" situation 
  • found in the throat of healthy carriers 
  • when invasive, fimbriae and capsules are important virulence factors 
  • transmission: airborne 
  • diagnosis: 
    • gram negative diplococci in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 
    • distinguished from the gonococcus by its ability to ferment maltose 
  • treatment: 
    • Penicillin G 
    • treating healthy carriers with rifampin and vaccinating susceptible individuals can stop epidemics 

12

Escherichia coli 

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Escherichia coli 

  • found in the intestinal tract of humans and other animals as part of micriobiota 
  • opportunistic: organism that normally lives in harmless association with the body but causes disease when given an opportunity to do so (organism being some place it shouldnt be) 
  • strains of E. coli can cause: 
    • urinary tract infection 
    • kidney infection 
    • pulmonary infection 
    • diarrhea 
    • meningitis (often associated with hospital acquired infections) 
  • E. coli O157:H7 
    • an enterhemorrhagic strain that causes bloody diarrhea and HUS syndrome in children

13

Shigella dysenteriae

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Shigella dysenteriae

  • shigellosis: caused by 4 species of Shigella 
  • S. dysenteriae causese the most severe form and is the least prevalent in the US
  • symptoms: 
    • blood and mucus in watery stools 
    • abdominal cramps 
    • fever 
    • ulceration of the intestinal mucosa 
  • transmission: 
    • food and waterbourne
  • diagnosis: 
    • recovery of organism from rectal swabs or stools

14

Salmonella gastroenteritis

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Salmonella gastroenteritis

  • caused by many Salmonella species 
  • symptoms: 
    • diarrhea 
    • nausea 
    • abdominal pain 
    • fever 
    • vomitting 
  • transmission: food and waterbourne
  • diagnosis: based on recovery of Salmonella from feces and food 
  • recovery can result in a carrier state

15

Salmonella typhi

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Salmonella typhi

  • most virulent Salmonella species 
  • causative agent of typhoid fever 
  • symptoms: 
    • high fever 
    • continual headache and malaise 
    • severe cases: perforation of intestinal wall 
  • organism may be isolated from blood, urine, and feces 
  • treatment: 
    • ampicillin 
    • ciprofloxacin
  • vaccines: available for high risk persons (17%-66% effective) 

16

Klebsiella pneumoniae

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Klebsiella pneumoniae

  • causative agent of Klebsiella pneumonia 
  • most common in the chronically debilitated 
  • virulence related to presence of a capsule
  • Klebsiella pneumonia results in lung abcesses and permanent lung damage
  • mortality is 85% if untreated 
  • oppportunistic: occasionally causes meningitis and diarrhea 
  • commonly found in throat/mouth of healthy persons

17

Enterobacter aerogenes

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Enterobacter aerogenes

  • opportunistic 
  • symptoms: 
    • urinary tract infection 
    • blood/wound infections

18

Yersinia pestis

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Yersinia pestis

  • causative agent of bubonic plague 
  • vector: usually the rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis)
  • symptoms: 
    • high fever
    • buboes 
    • bruises on skin when septicemic plague develops
    • may advance to pneumonic plague
  • diagnosis: 
    • isolation and identification of organism from bubo or from the blood; serologic tests can also be done 
  • treatment: 
    • antibiotics must be administered promptly after exposure to disease 
    • streptomycin is the drug of choice
  • vaccine: for high risk individuals

19

Hemophilus influenzae

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Hemophilus influenzae

  • etiological agent of bacterial meningitis
  • also causes: 
    • epiglottitis 
    • otitis media 
    • sinusitis 
    • respiratory infections
  • vaccine: Hib 
  • transmission: airborne 
  • diagnoisis: identification of organism in CSF 
  • treatment: rifampin commonly prescribed 

20

Vibrio cholerae

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Vibrio cholerae

  • causative agent of cholera 
    • serogroup O:1 causes classically recognized epidemic form of the disease 
  • transmission: ingestion of organism in contaminated food and water 
    • organism attaches to mucosa of intestinal wall and secretes enterotoxin which alters membrane permeability of mucosa, causing massive loss of fluids and electrolytes through diarrhea 
  • diagnosis: isolation of V. cholerae from feces 
  • treatment: 
    • tetracycline 
    • replacement of fluids and electrolytes

 

 

 

21

Rickettsia prowazekii

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Rickettsia prowazekii

  • causative agent of Epidemic Typhus 
  • chemoheterotroph 
  • obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells 
  • require cells to grow in; invade lining of blood vessels 

 

  • feces from vector (Pediculus humanus corporis) contaminates wound and causes infection; organism multiplies in lining of small blood vessels 
  • prevalent in crowded and unsanitary living conditions 
  • symptoms: 
    • excruciating headache 
    • muscle aches 
    • chills 
    • fever 
    • stupor; rash develops several days later 
  • treatment: 
    • tetracycline 
    • doxycycline

22

Rickettsia typhi

Rickettsia typhi

chemoheterotrophs; obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells

  • causative agent of Endemic Murine Typhus 
  • less severe typhus 
  • transmission: 
    • rodents to humans via rat fleas 
  • treatment: 
    • tetracycline 
    • doxycycline

23

Rickettsia rickettsii

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Rickettsia rickettsii

chemoheterotroph; obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells 

  • causative agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever 
  • vector: Dermacentor species or Amblyomma (ticks)
  • organism multiplies in lining of blood vessels 
  • symptoms: 
    • fever 
    • headache 
    • vomitting 
    • rash within a week 
  • treatment: 
    • tetracycline 
    • doxycycline

24

Coxiella burnettii

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Coxiella burnettii

Rickettsias; chemoheterotroph; obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells 

  • causative agent of Q fever 
  • transmission: 
    • unpasteurized milk 
    • inhalation of aerosols in dairy barns
  • treatment: 
    • tetracycline

25

Chlamydia trachomatis

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Chlamydia trachomatis

  • chemoheterotroph; obligate intracellular parasite of eukaryotic cells
  • causative agent of : 
    • trachoma
    • lymphogranuloma venereum 
    • nongonococcal urethritis 
    • pelvic inflammatory disease 
    • inlcusion conjunctivitis 
    • pneumonia in newborns and infected mothers 
  • transmission: 
    • direct contact 
  • treatment: 
    • doxycycline 
    • erythromycin 

26

The Mycoplasmas

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The Mycoplasmas

  • chemoheterotrophs 
  • lack cell walls
  • filtrable 
  • examples: 
    • Mycoplasma pneumoniae:
      • causes primary atypical pneumonia 
    • Mycoplasma hominis: 
      • causes nongonococcal urethritis and pelvic inflammatory disease
    • Ureaplasma urealyticum: 
      • causes nongonococcal urethritis

27

Streptococcus mutans

Streptococcus mutans

  • gram positive cocci 
  • principal cause of dental caries

28

Streptococcus pyogenes

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Streptococcus pyogenes

  • chemoheterotrophs 
  • gram positive cocci 
  • also known as group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus 
  • causes: 
    • puerperal fever 
    • impetigo 
    • erysipelas 
    • strep throat
    • scarlet fever 
    • necrotizing fasciitis 
  • delayed effects: 
    • glomerulonephritis 
    • rheumatic fever 
  • beta hemolysis on blood agar 
  • identification: 
    • M protein and immunity 
  • transmission: 
    • primarily airborne 
    • direct contact for some skin infections 
  • treatment: 
    • penicillin 
    • erythromycin

29

Bacillus anthracis

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Bacillus anthracis

  • chemoheterotrophs 
  • aerobic 
  • gram positive 
  • soil bacteria 
  • causative agent of soil bacteria 
  • only encapsulated organism is virulent; it produces three different protein exotoxins 

 

  • cutaneous anthrax: most common form 
    • bacteria enter through abrasions in the skin 
    • blister forms at the site of entry and gradually develops into a blackened ulcer 
    • a fatal septicemia develops in 10-20 percent of untreated cases 
  • pulmonary anthrax: less common, but more dangerous 
    • bacterial spores are inhaled 
    • mild respiratory symptoms initially occur (can result in hemorrhagic thoracic lymphadenitis an hemorragic mediastinitis) 
    • followed by septicemia; death is usually imminent 
  • violent enteritis: extremely rare form of anthrax 
    • bacterial spores are ingested 
    • mortality rate is high 

 

  • diagnosis: blood cultures and biochemical assays 
  • treatment: 
    • penicillin 
    • doxycycline 
    • ciprofloxacin
  • vaccine: for high risk workers handling infected animals 

30

Bacillus cereus 

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Bacillus cereus 

  • causes gastroenteritis ( food poisoning) 

 

31

Clostridium difficile

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Clostridium difficile

  • anaerobic 
  • usually with swollen spores 
  • causes antibiotic-associated-colitis (can follow use of broad spectrium antibiotics) 

 

32

Clostridium perfringens 

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Clostridium perfringens 

  • organism grows on nutrients released from gangrenous tissue and causes gas gangrene; also causes a self-limiting gastroenteritis 
  • encapsulated; can tolerate small amounts of oxygen; normally found in intestinal tracts of humans and animals 
  • transmission: direct contact 
  • treatment: 
    • debridement 
    • hyperbaric chambers 
    • amputation

33

Clostridium botulinum

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Clostridium botulinum

  • causative agent of botulism 
  • heat labile exotoxing (neurotoxin) inhibits transmission of nerve impulses
  • blurred vision occurs in 1-2 days; followed by flaccid paralysis for 1-10 days, which results in cardiac and respiratory failure
  • transmission: 
    • ingestion of toxins
  • infant botulism: 
    • ingestion of bacterium 
  • diagnosis: 
    • mice protected with antitoxin are inoculated with toxin from patient or foods 
  • treatment: 
    • botulinum antitoxin

34

Clostridium tetani

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Clostridium tetani

  • anaerobic; usually with swollen spores 
  • causative agent of tetanus 
  • involves a localized infection of a wound 
  • neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) blocks transmission of inhibitory impulses causing: 
    • spasms 
    • contraction of muscles controlling jaw 
    • death from spasms of respiratory muscles (respiratory or cardiac failure) 
  • vaccine: DPT (contains tetanus toxoid) 
  • treatment: debridement and antibiotics

35

Lactobacillus

Lactobacillus

  • gram positive rods 
  • chemoheterotrophs 
  • lactic acid bacterium; found on mucous membranes of humans 
  • facultative anaerobe 
  • used in food preparation 

36

Listeria monocytogenes

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Listeria monocytogenes

  • gram positive rods 
  • chemoheterotroph 
  • causative agent of meningitis in newborns, pregnant women, cancer patients, and the immunosuppresed
  • may cross placent and cause spontaneous abortion or stillbirth 
  • acquired by ingestion of contaminated food 

37

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

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Corynebacterium diphtheriae

  • gram positive rods 
  • chemoheterotrophs 
  • causative agent of diptheria 
  • exotoxin produced in lysogenized bacteria inhibits protein synthesis; heart, kidney or nerve damage may result 
  • stains metachromatically
    • forms black colonies on differential media containing potassium tellurite
  • transmission: airborne 
  • vaccine: DTap (contains diptheria toxoid) 

38

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  • chemoheterotrophs 
  • irregularly shaped rods 
  • aerobic 
  • high lipid content in cell walls 
  • causative agent of tuberculosis 
  • lipids in cell wall cause acid-fast characterisitic and resistance to drying, disinfectants, strong acids and alkalis; resists certain antibiotics 
  • generation time: 12 hours 
    • produce excess niacin (B vitamin) 
  • lesions formed in lungs are called tubercles; necrosis results in caseous lesion that might calcify and form a Ghon complex in an Xray 
  • a positive tuberculin skin test can indicate either an active case or prior infection or vaccination and immunity 
  • transmission: airborne 
  • diagnosis: antimycrobacterial drugs

 

39

Mycobacterium leprae

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Mycobacterium leprae

  • chemoheterotroph 
  • irregularyl shaped rods 
  • aerobic 
  • high lipid content in cell walls
  • causative agent of Hansen's disease 
  • obligate intracellular parasite
  • generation time: 12 days or more 
  • tuberculoid form of disease is characterized by:
    • loss of sensation in the skin surrounded by nodules
    • lepromin test is positive 
  • lepromatous form of disease is characterized by: 
    • disseminated nodules and tissue necrosis 
    • Lepromin test is negative 
  • transmission: prolonged contact with exudates 
  • diagnosis: observation of acid-fast bacilli in lessions or fluid 
  • Hansen's disease patients are made noncommunicable within 4 or 5 days with sulfone drugs

40

Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria

Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria

  • Photoautotrophs 
  • anaerobic photobacteria; electron donor is not water 
  • photosynthetic pigments differ from cyanobacteria, algae and green plants 
  • grouped as either purple bacteria or green bacteria 
    • dependent on the type of chlorophyll and other pigments they have 
  • Examples: 
    • Purple bacteria: Rhodospirillum 
    • Green bacteria: Chlorobium

41

Oxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria

Oxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria

  • photoautotrophs 
  • aerobic photobacteria
    • oxygen evolved as by-product (water is electron donor) 
  • chlorophyll pigments 
    • same as those of plants and algae 
  • Examples: 
    • Oscillatoria

42

Streptococcus pneumoniae

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

  • Chemoheterotrophs 
  • encapsulated organism causes:
    • bacterial (pneumococcal) pneumonia
    • otitis media
    • meningitis 
  • identification: 
    • alpha hemolysis
    • inhibition by optochin 
    • lysis by bile 
    • quellung reaction 
  • treatment: 
    • penicillin (penicillin resistance is increasing) 
  • vaccine: 
    • Pneumovax