Skill Acquisition Flashcards Preview

A Level PE > Skill Acquisition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skill Acquisition Deck (45):
1

Gross skills

Large muscle movements using large muscle groups

The shot put

2

Fine skills

Intricate movements using small muscle groups

Snooker shot

3

Open skill

Affected by the environment

Pass in football

4

Closed skill

Not affected by the environment

Free throw in basketball

5

Discrete skills

Actions with a clear beginning and end

Penalty flick in hockey

6

Serial skills

Group of discrete skills strung together

Triple jump

7

Continuous skills

Have no obvious beginning or end

Cycling

8

Externally paced skills

Environment controls the rate of performing the skill

Tackle in football

9

Internally paced skills

Performer controls the rate in which the skills are executed

Javelin throw

10

Simple skills

Straightforward with few judgements or decisions

Swimming

11

Complex skills

Involve many decisions and judgements

Tennis serve

12

Low organisation skills

Easy and uncomplicated

Swimming strokes

13

High organisation skills

Many sub-routines are closely linked together

Cartwheel

14

Part practice

Working on an isolated sub-routine within a skill
Used for low organisation skills

Practising the backswing only in a tennis

15

Whole practice

Skill being taught without breaking them down into parts
Good for skills that are high organisation

Sprinting, dribbling

16

Whole-part-whole practice

Practicing the whole skill before breaking it down into sub-routines before returning to the whole skill
Good for serial skills with low organisation

Swimming/stroke/swimming

17

Progressive-part practice

Skills broken into sub-routines, progressively learning more parts
Complex, serials, low organisation

Triple jump

18

Massed practice

Involves short or no rest intervals
Good for discrete skills

19

Distributed practice

Practice sessions with rest intervals included
Good with continuous skills

20

Fixed practice

Specific movement is practiced repeatedly in a stable environment, often known as a drill
Good for closed skills

21

Varied practice

When a skill is practiced in different environments and scenarios
Good for open skills

22

Proactive transfer

When a skill learned previously affects a skill yet to be learned

23

Retroactive transfer

When learning a new skill affects a skill learned previously

24

Positive transfer

When learning of one skill helps the learning of another skill

25

Negative transfer

When learning of one skill hinders the learning of another skill

26

Bilateral transfer

Transferring a skill from one limb to another limb

27

Operant conditioning

Trial and error learning
Correct response leads to reinforcement

28

Thorndike’s laws

Law of exercise - repeating actions strengthens reinforcement
Law of effect - if followed by a pleasant reaction S-R bond +
Law of readiness - athlete must be mentally and physically capable

29

Cognitive theory of learning

Learning best achieved by practicing/ thinking about skill as whole
Thought processes are dependent on perception

30

Observation learning

Behaviour will be copied if it comes from a high status role model
Often in form of demonstration, form of visual guidance
Involves attention retention motor reproduction, motivation

31

Cognitive stage of learning

Performances are inconsistent, lack co-ordination, error prone
Demonstrations and positive feedback are vital at this stage
Specific feedback needed to correct errors

32

Associative stage of learning

Big improvements are made in the stage, errors are smaller
Learned develops ability to use intrinsic feedback

33

Autonomous stage of learning

The learner performs the skill without conscious thought process
Less need for extrinsic feedback, practice must continue

34

Verbal guidance

Provided by coach/teacher
Used to describe and explain how to perform an activity
Often used alongside visual guidance in form of a demonstration

35

Visual guidance

Images or demonstrations can be used to help the learner
Coach should highlight key points of the movement
Often used alongside verbal guidance

36

Manual guidance

Physical support by another person, often coach
Being physically directed

37

Mechanical guidance

Being physically supported using a mechanical device
Such as a float in swimming, or ball machine in tennis

38

Intrinsic feedback

From internal proprioceptors about the feel of the movement

39

Extrinsic feedback

From external sources such as a coach

40

Positive feedback

Received when the movement is successful
This reinforces learning

41

Negative feedback

Received when the movement is incorrect

42

Knowledge of results

Feedback dependent on the outcome of our movements
It’s is predominantly extrinsic

43

Knowledge of performance

Concerns the movement and quality of it

44

Multi store model of memory

Atkinson and Shiffren
Sensory memory - selective attention
Short term memory - where info is received - chunking
Long term memory - movement skills stored


45

Craik and Lockhart’s levels of processing model

Info remembered when considered, understood and has meaning
Deeper info processed longer memory trace will last
Structural levels; what words look like
Phonetic level; processing words and sounds
Semantic level; meaning of words