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Science for Med Revision > Skin > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skin Deck (36):
1

What are the cells in the epidermis called?

Keratinocytes

2

What do keratinocytes make?

Keratin

3

What is the function of the epidermis?

- Prevents water loss
- Separates internal and external environment

4

What is the function of the dermis?

- Maintains epidermis with blood flow
- Allows cooling
- Immune surveillance
- UV protection
- Sensory info
- Structural strength

5

What is the hypodermis?

?Adipose tissue below dermis

6

What is the function of the hypodermis

Anchoring the skin to underlying tissue

7

What are the 4 cell types found in the epidermis?

- Keratinocytes
- Melanocytes
- Langerhans cells
- Merkel cells

8

What is the function of melanocytes?

Pigment formation

9

What is the function of langerhans cells

Immune surveillance

10

What are merkel cells?

- Touch receptors
- Essentially nerve endings

11

What are the 5 layers of the epidermis?

- Stratum corneum
- Stratum lucidum
- Stratum granulosum
- Stratum spinosum
- Stratum basale

12

What is the cell arrangement of the stratum basale?

- Tall columnar cells
- Interspaced melanocytes and merkel cells

13

How are cells in the stratum basale bound to the basement membrane?

Hemidesmosomes

14

How are cels in the stratum basale linked to each other?

Desmosomes

15

What is the relationship between the papillary layer of the dermis and the stratum basale like?

- Papillary layer projects into the SB in some areas and a lot less in others

16

What cells are in the stratum basale?

Pre-keratinocyte stem cells

17

Where does the stratum spinosum start?

After cell death

18

Why is it called "spinosum"

Cells have spines

19

How do the cells of the stratum spinosum form spines?

- Cell shrinks after death but desmosomes stay attached

20

What does the stratum granulosum contain?

Granules of keratohyalin

21

Where is keratohyalin converted into keratin?

Stratum corneum

22

Which skin layer varies in thickness?

Stratum corneum

23

Where is thick skin?

- Hands
- Feet

24

Where is thin skin?

Abdomen

25

What are the two layers of the dermis?

- Papillary layer
- Reticular layer

26

What type of connective tissue is the papillary layer?

Loose connective

27

What type of tissue is the reticular layer?

Dense irregular connective

28

What are the blood vessels in the dermis responsible for?

- Thermoregulation
- Supplying the dermis and stratum basale with oxygen

29

What is the name of the structural protein found in the reticular layer

Collagen

30

What does the dermis lose with age?

Elasticity

31

What glands are found in the reticular layer?

- Sebaceous gland
- Sweat glands

32

What other structures are found in the reticular layer?

- Receptors
- Nails
- Vessels

33

How do cells develop waterproofing?

- Form keratin
- Have glycolipid in between cells

34

What protects the skin from UV?

Melanin

35

What muscle causes piloerection?

Erector pili

36

What is secreted by sebaceous glands?

Sweat