What are the 2 major parts of the Integument system?
What is another name for the oily glands?
What are the 3 layers of the Cutaneous (skin) Membrane as well as the name of the subcutaneous layer?
What are the 5 function's of the Integument system?
- Excretion - Salts etc
- Thermal regulation
- Energy stores
- Hormonal function
Regarding the embryo, what layer of cells did the epidermis come from?
Regarding the embryo, what layer of cells did the dermis come from?
What are the 2 locations in which epithelium takes a different name?
Vascular system - Endothelium
Cavities - Mesothelium
Endothelium and mesothelium is Epithelium 'like'
List some accessory structures?
- Hair shaft
- Pore of sweat gland
- Arrector Pilli Muscle
- Nerve fibers
- Sebaceous Glands
- Sweat glands
Name the two different types of sweat glands?
Eccrine and apocrine glands
Features of Eccrine glands
More abundant, Found on the palms, forehead, soles of your feet. Start in the dermis, simple coiled structures and extend through a duct.
Features of Apocrine sweat glands
Less in number approx, 2000. Start excreting about puberty onto hair follicles around armpits and groin. More viscus sweat carries an odor due to bacteria
name two types of modifed apocrine sweat glands
Mammary glands Ceruminous Glands (ear wax)
Name the Oily glands?
What are the features of the oil glands?
Found everywhere bar the thick skin - Attached to hair follicles where they secrete there sebum.
Causes spots when they get blocked.
Helps moisture and soften and slow water loss from the skin.
Is the epithelium vascular or avascular?
Avascular - no blood
What are the names of the 4 main epithelial cells in the body?
How many layers are present in the epidermis?
4 - 5 layers depending on thick skin or thin skin
Why do some people have darker skin than others?
The amount of Melanine in the melanocytes differs
What is the principla cell in the epidermis?
What layer would you find melanocytes in?
What is the Skin associated Lympatic tissue?
This is tissue made up of T-Lymphocytes and langerhands cells
What layer are keritanocytes made?
How long dose it take for Keritocytes to make it to the top layer?
3-4 weeks. Once they push up to 3 cells from the base they stop dividing and then come to the surface, flattening as they go, until there flake like.
How many layers are there in thin skin and thick skin?
4 in thin and 5 in thick
What other cell will you find in the basal layer?
What is unique to the Stratum Spinosum layer?
All the keratinocytes look like they have spikes. This is there Desmosome junction.
What other cell could you find in Stratum Spinousum layer?
Langerhans cell - the defence cell
What are the names of the 5 layers found in the epidermis from the bottom up?
- Starum Basale
- Stratum Spinosum
- Stratum Granulousum
- Stratum Lucideum
- Stratum Corneum
What is unique about the Stratum granulosum layer?
A darker layer where the cells begin to flatten.
Only one cell thick in thin skin or 3-5 layers in thick skin
What are the function of the lamellated granules in the Keritinocytes of the Stratum granulosum?
They get expelled from the cell and is used as cement for the top layers.
What is unique about strtum Lucidum
A transparent layer only found in thick skin.
What is the name of the top layer of the epidermis?
What is the name of the two layers in the dermis?
Pappilary layer - closest to the Epidermis
Reticular layer - Loose connective tissue
What is the name of the cells in the connective tissue?
Is the connective tissue vascular or avascular?
What are the names of the 3 types of fibers in connective tissue?
Which has more cells, the pappilary layer of reticular layer?
Where is the Hypodermis found?
Below ther Dermis.
What is the Hydodermis made of?
Adipose tissue and adipose cells.
What are the 3 things that can give our skin colour?
Melanin - made from the enzyme Tyrosine
Carotene - found in the stratum Corneum
Haemoglobin - Found in RBC's
List 5 things that create an abnormal skin colour?
Paller - fear, stress
Jaundice - Liver condition
Bronzing - Addision disease
Haematoma - Bruise
What is the function of the skin