Skin, Bone, Healthcare Infections Flashcards Preview

MD2 Foundation > Skin, Bone, Healthcare Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skin, Bone, Healthcare Infections Deck (35):
1

most skin and soft tissue infections are caused by?

staph aureus
strep pyogenes

2

cellulitis is?

acute inflammatory process involving skin and soft tissues causing erythema, tenderness, warmth, swelling, lymphangitis
mostly lower limb

3

lymphangitis vs lymphadenitis

lymphangitis is inflammation of lymph tracks, red lines running up the legs
lymphadenitis is painful swollen nodes

4

risk factors for cellulitis

peripheral edema
lymph stasis
ulcers/wounds/trauma
dermatophytic infections (tinea)

5

mycobacterium marinum causes

fish tank granuloma

6

management of cellulitis

flucloxacillin
or cephalexin or cephazolin if allergic to penicillins

7

what is chronic venous insufficiency

disruption of the valves in veins which overwhelms the lymphatics.
get blood in the interstitial space that isnt cleared, breaks down leaving hemosiderin stains.
get swelling of legs
not as painful as cellulitis

8

how to differentiate acute contact dermatitis with cellulitis

usually have an exposure to irritant
and isnt as tender as cellulitis

9

differentials for cellulitis

septic arthritis
septic bursitis
contact dermatitis
chronic lymphodema
necrotising fasciitis
pyomyositis
DVT
gout
thrombophlebitis

10

markers for deeper infection (necrotising fasciitis/gas gangrene)

severe pain
systemic toxicity (high HR, low BP)
gas
clinical deterioiration despite antibiotics
skin necrosis
bullae
elevated CK (due to muscle destruction)

11

typical pathogen post-burn

pseudamonus aerigonosa

12

treatment for cellulitis (suspected staph or strep)

flucloxacillin or cephalexin if allergic
if strep pyogenes likely can use penicillin

13

treatment of severe cellulitis

IV fluclox 2g/6 hourly
or IV cephazolin if allergic

14

what is gout? what joint is most common? treat with?

urate crystal deposition in joints, usually metatarsophalyngeal
diagnosed by urate aspirate
treat with NSAIDS

15

what is thrombophlebitis

inflammation and thrombus within a vein

16

septic arthritis mostly occurs via

blood borne infection
but oculd be direct innoculation

17

what is a fomite

contaminated object

18

what is MRSA, what is it resistant to?
treat with?

methicillin resistant staph aureus
resistant to all penicillins, most cephalosporins
treat with vancomycin

19

does culture of klebsiella in sputum mean a patient has pneumonia?
what about staph aureus in blood?

for pneumonia look at the patient and assess them for actual symptoms of pneumonia.
staph aureus in blood is ALWAYS significant

20

what is VRE

vancomycin resistant enterococcus

21

what is CPE

carbapenemase producing enterobacteriaceae

22

difference between gram positive and gram negative

gram positive = 1 membrane and surrounding peptidoglycan wall
gram negative = inner and outer membrane (LPS) with a thin peptidoglycan wall in between

23

examples of beta lactam drugs and how they work

penicillins
cephalosporins
carbapenems

they inhibit cell wall synthesis by blocking transpeptidase so only work on dividing bacteria

24

antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking ribosomal subunits

aminogycosides (gentmicin)
tetracyclines (doxycycline)
macrolides (azithromycin)
lincosamides (clindamycin)

25

antibiotics that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis

trimethoprim
sulphonamides
fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin)
metranidazole

26

normal white cell count range

4-11

27

normal CRP levels

below 5

28

gram positive diplococci present on sputum culture would indicate?

pneumococcal infection

29

treatment for pneumoccal pneumonia

typically penicillins
penicillin G (IV)
and penicillin V (oral)

30

a broad specturm penicillin with activity against pseudamonus aeriginosa

piperacillin
commonly prescrribed with beta-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam

31

if patient with pneumococcal pneumonia developed rash from penicillin what would you give?

cephtriaxone (a cephalosporin)
cephtriaxone doesnt work well for staph aureus

32

the kind of organisms that cause atypical pneumonia?
treatment?

intracellular
legionalla
chlamydia
coxiella

treatment: doxycycline (a tetracycline)
or azithromycin (a macrolide)
with intracellular activity

33

what causes rigors?

other than influenza it is mostly bacterial infections

34

when should you treat asymptomatic bacteriuria

only in pregnancy or before urology procedures

35

causes of postoperative fever?

usually a result of the procedure itself
wind (pneumonia)
water (UTI)
wound
walking (PE)