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Flashcards in Skin, Hair & Nails Deck (19):

What are the 3 layers on the skin?

Epidermis (outer layer), Dermis (inner supportive layer), Subcutaneous layer (adipose tissue beneath dermis)


What is included in Epidermal appendages?

Hair, sebaceous & sweat glands, and nails


What should health promotion of the skin focus on?

Sun safety, avoid tanning beds, & reduce risk for lyme disease


What should be observed with inspecting the skin?

Color & general pigmentation; Subtle skin tone changes; Mucous membranes, lips, nail beds & sclera; Temperature, moisture, texture, thickness, edema, mobility, turgor, vascularity or bruising & lesions.


What should be observed when inspecting the hair?

Colour, texture, distribution; Also check scalp for lesions including infestations.


What should be observed when inspecting the nails?

Shape/contour, consistency and colour; Assess capillary refill.


Define Melanoma

Melanoma is a rare but very dangerous form of skin cancer that develops when melanocytes become malignant


What are some possible signs of a developing Melanoma?

A new mole appearing in adult life; Change in size, shape, colour or appearance of an existing mole; A mole that looks different from the rest of the moles on your body; A mole that becomes itchy, crusted or bleeds


What is a Sebborheic Keratosis?

A sebborheic keratosis (SK) is a harmless warty spot that appears during adult life as a common sign of skin aging. They are usually brown, rough, and appear “stuck on” the surface of the skin; SKs usually start to appear around age 30-40, and tend to increase in size and number as we get older – some people have hundreds. Other common names for these spots include “age spots,” “sun spots,” and “barnacles of aging.”


What is a Cyst?

A cyst is a benign, round sac beneath the surface of the skin that contains fluid or solid material. Skin cysts commonly form when surface material (dead skin cells, oils, etc) get trapped in the deeper skin layers, where they continue to slowly grow and accumulate debris. They can occur on any skin surface of the body.


What are some developmental considerations in skin for infants and children?

An infants skin is thin, smooth & elastic making it more permeable than adult skin therefore putting the infant at risk for fluid loss. Temperature regulation is ineffective. Eccrine sweat glands do not secret in response to heat until the first few months of life. Skin cannot protect against cold because it cannot contract and shiver.


What are some developmental considerations in skin for pregnant women?

Increased pigmentation in areolae, nips vulva & sometimes midline of abdomen; striae gravidarum (stretch marks)


What are some developmental considerations in skin for older adults?

Epidermis thins & flattens allowing chemicals easier access into the body; wrinkling occurs due to dermis thinning & flattening; Elastin, collagen, subcutaneous fat, & muscle tone are lost; this all can lead to shearing and tearing injuries; sweat and sebaceous glands decrease leaving skin dry and putting older people at risk of heat stroke.


Define ABCDE

Asymmetry (not regularly round/oval, 2 halves not looking same)
Border irregularity (notching, scalloping, poor defined)
Colour variation
Diameter greater than 6mm
Elevation & Evolution


Define Mobility in regards to skin

The skins ease of rising


Define Turgor

The skins ability to return to place promptly when released


Which ethnocultural group may have diminished body hair?

Asian descent


Where should you observe pallor in black or brown skinned people?

Mucous membranes; Conjunctiva


Define Cyanosis

Bluish discoloration due to tissues not being adequately perfused with oxygenated blood.