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Flashcards in skin histo Deck (12):

What are the layers of the skin?

from outside to inside:
stratum corneum, stratum lucida, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum (spines are desmosomes) , stratum basale (stem cell layer)
californians like girls in string bikinis


What are adherens junctions? Relevance to disease?

not as tight as tight junctions, help connect actin cytoskeletons of adjacent cells. Use cadherin proteins to do this. Loss of E-cadherin in CA cells promotes metastasis


What are desmosomes? Relevance to disease?

they provide structural support to a tissue. They link keratin of one cell to keratin of the other cell.
autoanti-bodies to desmosomes cause pemphigus vulgaris. causes flaccid bulla


What are hemidesmosomes? Relevance to disease?

Proteins that connect the keratin in basal cells to the underlying basement membrane. auto-antibodies to hemidesmosomes cause bullous pemphigoid (hemidesmosomes are down "bullow"). causes tense bulla.


What are integrins?

membrane proteins that maintain integrity of the basolateral membrane by binding collagen and laminin in the basement membrane


What is McBurney point?

location of appendix. 2/3 distance from umbilicus and anterior superior iliac spine


Where do you place a pudendal nerve block? Why would you do a pudendal nerve block?

ishcial spine; relieves pain of delivery


MCL and LCL: testing

medial collateral and lateral collateral ligaments.
test with valgus and varus stress, preferably at 30 degrees. Valgus stress: thigh in, calf out. If pain occurs, suggests MCL
Varus stress: thigh out, calf in. If present, suggests LCL. Always consider peroneal nerve (fibular nerve) injury with LCL injury


Patella: what is it? How does it usually disolacte?

bone that covers and protects anterior knee joint. usually dislocates laterally. pain will be medial, where it has been torn away.


Meniscus tears: who usually gets them, what makes them worse, what is the meniscus? What is the most common type of meniscus tear?

common in young patients; aggravated by twisting and squatting. the meniscus are two pads of cartilagenous tissue that disperse friction of the knee
Medial is most common


How do you test for meniscus tears?

McMurry test: flex knee fully, then extend it while doing external rotation; then extend it while doing internal rotation.
pain/popping external rotation = medial meniscus; pain/popping with internal rotation = lateral meniscus


What is the unhappy triad wrt knee pain?

seen in athletes who experience lateral trauma. this stresses medial supports: ACL tear, MCL tear, and medial meniscus tear. Note that the lateral meniscus injury is also common here.

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