Flashcards in Skin Infections Deck (90):
What 4 kinds of infections can affect the skin?
What kinds of bacterial skin infections can pts have?
What kinds of viral skin infections can pts have?
What kinds of fungal skin infections can pts have?
What kinds of parasitic skin infections can pts have?
What is cellulitis?
An acute, painful infection of the skin (dermis) and subcutaneous tissues
Does cellulitis have clearly demarcated borders?
What is the term for a superficial form of cellulitis?
Does erysipelas have clearly demarcated borders?
When is cellulitis more common and more serious?
In pts with other underlying disease such as diabetes,cancer, or immunodeficiency
What lifestyle factors can increase risk of cellulitis?
IV drug use
What are some other risk factors for cellulitis?
What organism most commonly causes cellulitis?
What other organisms can rarely cause cellulitis?
Who is usually affected by these more unusual organisms in cellulitis?
What can cause cellulitis less than 24 hours post operatively?
Group a beat-haemolytic Strep
Which organism usually causes erysipelas?
Group A Strep
Is there lymphatic involevement in cellulitis?
What is the typical treatment for cellulitis?
Which oral antibiotic is commonly prescribed for cellulitis?
Which antibiotics is prescribed if the pt has a penicillin allergy in cellulitis?
If the cellulitis is present on the face, which antibiotics should be prescribed?
Co-amoxiclav, or clarithromycn is penicillin allergy
What is impetigo?
A highly infectious skin condition that presents with sores or blisters
What are the types of impetigo?
Which is the most common impetigo?
How does non bullous impetigo start?
As a red sore near the nose or mouth that breaks, leaks pus/fluid, then forms a yellow scab
How can impetigo be spread?
By touching it then touching another area
What is bullous impetigo?
Painless, fluid filled blisters on arms/legs/trunk, that are red and itchy. They break and form yellow scabs
Who does impetigo most commonly affect?
Children ages 2-5, especially those in school/day care
How is impetigo treated?
Also with oral or topical antibiotics
How is localised non bullous impetigo treated?
With topica abx such as fusidic acid
How are extensive non bullous impetigo, and bullous infection treated?
With oral antibiotics, usually flucloxacillin, or clarithromycin/erythromycin in penicillin allergy
As well as impetigo and cellulitis, what skin conditions can be caused by a Staph infection?
What is SSSS? Who does it affect?
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (staph toxin causes extensive skin blistering), affecting childen and young babies
What is a boil?
A red, apinful lump on the skin, usually developing on the neck, face, armpit, or buttocks
Why do boils grow and become more painful?
As they fill with pus
What happens to boils after ~2-3 weeks?
They burst and pus drains out (no scarring)
What is a carbuncle?
A dome shaped cluster of boils
What is a skin abscess?
A collection of pus that appears as a painful lump under the surface of the skin, usually caused by a Staph infection
What symptms are associated with an abscess?
Pain around affected area
General feeling of unwellness
What is folliculitis?
Infection of a hair follicle causing an itchy pus-filled bump, typically on the neck, armpit, or groin
What is typically used for the treatment of folliculitis?
How is SSSS usually treated?
What is shingles?
A viral disease caused by the herpes zoster virus, which causes a painful, dermatomal rash
Is the shingles rash bilateral?
What can happen a few days before the rash appears in shingles?
Tingling or pain local to the area the rash appears in.
Generally feeling unwell
Are there any complications of shingles?
Yes - postherpetic neuralgia
What can happen if the rash in shingles involves the eye?
Vision loss may be a complication
Why does shingles occur?
Due to reactivation of the VZV in the pts body after it remains inactive in nerve roots from initial infection (chicken pox)
Is shingles usually self limiting?
What are the characteristics of the shingles rash?
Patchy erythema with grouped herpetiform vesicles, usually contained within a dermatone.
What is postherpetic neuralgia characterised by?
Persistent/recurring pain lasting 30 days + after the acue infection, usually in the region of the originally involved dermatome. Often severe, and resolves very slowly.
What is shingles of the facial nerve called?
Ramsay Hunt syndrome
How can shingles be prevented?
Is shingles infectious?
Only to people who have not had chicken pox or the VZV vaccine
What lifestyle advice can help with shingles?
Avoid sharing clothes or towels
Wear loose-fitting clothing
Cover weeping lesions
Avoid topical creams and tight dressings
Keep it clean and dry
Who needs referal to a specialist in shingles?
Those with opthalmic involvement
Immunocompromised adults and children
Systemically unwell pts
Widespread/multiple dermatome involvement
Who needs antiviral treatment (without referal) in shingles?
Pts over 50
Pts under 50 if immunocompromised (adults), moderate/severe pain or rash, or non-truncal involvement
Which antivirals can be used in shingles?
Oral aciclovir, valaciclovir, or famciclovir within 72 hours of rash onset
What can cause warts?
What is the difference between a wart and a veruca?
A veruca is a wart on the sole of the foot that iften gets trodden in
How are warts most commonly treated?
They aren't! They usually resolve on their own
How does HPV cause warts?
Infection of keratinocytes causes hyperkeratinisation and epidermal thickening.
What else can be used to treat warts?
A combination of the two
Where can HPV cause warts?
(Anywhere where there may be trauma and repeated expoure to moisture without drying)
What herpes simplex viruses are there?
What is HSV-1?
What is HSV-2?
What can HSV-1 manifest as?
What happens when HSV-2 first manifests?
Pt feels generally unwell (mild fever, aches, pains) then groups of small, painful blisters then appear around genitals and/or anus. They tend to erupt in crops over 1-2 weeks. The blisters soon burst and turn to shallow, sore ulcers.
What secondary symptoms occur in HSV-2 infections?
Pain on urination
What is a candidal skin infection?
Yeast infection of the skin
Where on skin is candida most likely to thrive?
Anywhere moist or sweaty eg folds of skin, armpits, under breasts
How does a candidal skin infection look/feel?
The rash is usually sore and itchy. Small blister-like swellings may develop on the rash. Skin scale can accumulate on the rash to produce a white-yellow, curd-like substance over the affected area.
How is a candidal skin infection treated?
What antifungal creams can be used in candidal skin infections?
Ketoconazole (adults only)
Which oral antifungals can be prescribed for more severe candidal infection?
What lifestle advice can be given to prevent candidal infections?
Dry the susceptible areas well
Wear light, loose, cotton clothing
Keep prone areas dry and clean
What is athlete's foot also known as?
What is athlete's foot?
A fungal infection of the foot caused by Trichophyton
How common is athlete's foot?
Roughly 1 in 4 people have it at an one point
Why does athlete's foot happen?
The conditions fungi like best are warm, moist and airless areas of skin, such as between the toes.
Where is affected first in athlete's foot?
Between the toes
What are the symptoms of athletes foot?
Itchy, scaly rash
Cracked and sore skin
Can athletes foot spread to the nails?
How is athletes foot treated?
What is an important part of the athete's foot history?
Swimming or other exercise
What is ringworm?
Fungal infection that causes rounded, red, inflammed patches of skin that spread outwards
What is ringworm also known as?