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Flashcards in Skin IX Deck (31):
1

osteomyelitis and infectious arthritis are caused primarily by ___ or ___

 

osteomyelitis and infectious arthritis are caused primarily by bacteria (G+ve) or fungi

2

immune-complex arthritis, reactive arthritis and rheumatic fever are caused by ____ to either ___ or ____

immune-complex arthritis, reactive arthritis and rheumatic fever are caused by immune reactions to either bacteria or viruses

3

the most common cause of osteomyelitis is by ____ spread from ___

the most common cause of osteomyelitis is by hematogenous spread from a distant site

4

acute bacterial osteomyelitis presents ____ after infection and is common in ____

acute bacterial osteomyelitis presents within 2 weeks after infection and is common in children

5

chronic osteomyelitis symptoms typically present ____ after infection and tends to occur in ____

chronic osteomyelitis symptoms typically present within 6 weeks after infection and tends to occur in in the lower extremity especially in diabetics with vascular insufficiency

6

osteomyelitis in children occurs most commonly in (which bones?) and is localized (to which part of the bone?)

osteomyelitis in children occurs most commonly in long bones and is localized the metaphysis (richly endowed with blood vessels)

7

osteomyelitis in adults spreads to (which bones?) and most often occurs from infections of ____

osteomyelitis in adults spreads to vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis and most often occurs from infections of the lung

8

in vertebral osteomyelitis, the ___ region is affected more often than ____ or ____ regions

in vertebral osteomyelitis, the lumbar region is affected more often than cervical or thoracic regions

9

in chronic osteomyelitis, ___ of the bone occurs and ___ can form

in chronic osteomyelitis, necrosis of the bone occurs and sequestrum (an avascular piece of infected bone) can form

10

relapses occur in ___ osteomyelitis more than in ____ osteomyelitis

relapses occur in chronic osteomyelitis more than in acute osteomyelitis

11

a radiologic finding in osteomyelitis is a defect in the bone with ____

a radiologic finding in osteomyelitis is a defect in the bone with periosteal elevation

12

_____ are positive in osteomyelitis in approx. half of cases

blood cultures are positive in osteomyelitis in approx. half of cases

13

infectious (septic) arthritis is an infection of ___

infectious (septic) arthritis is an infection of the joints

14

the most common cause of infectious arthritis is ___

while in young, sexually active adults, it is ____

the most common cause of infectious arthritis is S. aureus

while in young, sexually active adults, it is N. gonorrhea

15

list the most commonly affected joints in descending order in infectious arthritis

  • knee
  • hip (most common in < 3 years old)
  • elbow
  • ankle
  • sterno-clavicular joint 

16

analysis of ___ plays an important role in the diagnosis of infectious arthritis

analysis of synovial fluid plays an important role in the diagnosis of infectious arthritis

17

synovial fluid from an infected joint may appear.... (3 things)

  • cloudy
  • high WBC
  • low glucose concentration

18

in infectious arthritis, organisms typically reach the joint via ___ from ____

in infectious arthritis, organisms typically reach the joint via the bloodstream from  a skin site

19

list the clinical manifestations of infectious arthritis

  • acute onset of inflamed joints
  • fever
  • affected joint is red, warm and swollen
  • reluctance to use a joint

20

diagnosis of infectious arthritis is via Gram stain of ___

diagnosis of infectious arthritis is via Gram stain of joint fluid

21

in infectious arthritis, there is elevated serum ___, ___ and ____

in infectious arthritis, there is elevated serum WBC, ESR>30 mm/h and CRP > 5 mg/dl

22

the typical radiologic finding in infectious arthritis is ____

the typical radiologic finding in infectious arthritis is soft tissue swelling

23

viral arthritis is caused by ____

viral arthritis is caused by  a virus-induced immune complex formation that is deposited in the joints

24

list the most common viruses involved in viral arthritis

  • Parvovirus B19
  • hepatitis B
  • hepatitis C
  • rubella
  • Epstein-Barr
  • arbovirus (dengue virus)

25

in viral arthritis, the ___ joints are most often affected 

in viral arthritis, the small joints are most often affected 

26

list causes of reactive arthritis

  • Campylobacter
  • Shigella
  • Salmonella
  • Yersinia
  • Chlamydia

27

in reactive arthritis, there is ___ arthritis of the knee or ankle accompanied by ___

in reactive arthritis, there is asymmetric arthritis of the knee or ankle accompanied by fever

28

what does the culture of synovial fluid in reactive arthritis show?

negative culture

29

reactive arthritis accompanied by ___ and ___ is called ___ syndrome

reactive arthritis accompanied by conjunctivitis and urethritis is called Reiter's syndrome

30

____ have no effect on reactive arthritis

antibiotics have no effect on reactive arthritis

remember it is caused by IMMUNE COMPLEXES; the bacteria are not the primary cause

31

skin involvement in rheumatic fever consists of ___ and ____

skin involvement in rheumatic fever consists of erythema marginatum and subcutaneous nodules