Small Group 6 Pathology of Obstructive Disease Flashcards Preview

Respiratory Block > Small Group 6 Pathology of Obstructive Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Small Group 6 Pathology of Obstructive Disease Deck (8):
1

Describe the key pathological findings in a patient with pan-acinar emphysema due to alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

bullae due to parenchymal loss and airspace coalescence
prominent vessels on cut surface due to parenchymal loss
microscopic images with septal loss and enlarged airspaces

2

Describe the key pathological findings in a patient with status asthmatics. (gross and microscopic)

gross: sever hyperinflation, cut surface shows mucus plug, bronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy and increased size of submucosal glands
microscopic: muscus plugging, smooth muscle hypertrophy and eosinophilia (red/pink), high power shooing Curschmann's spiral (made of eosinophil membrane protein) and Charcot-Leyden crystals

3

Describe the key pathological findings in a patient with chronic bronchitis.

lymphocytic chronic inflammation
mucus gland hyperplasia
right ventricular hypertrophy

4

Describe the key pathological findings in a patient with cystic fibrosis.

bronchiectasis, fibrosis

5

COPD with enlargement in the centriacinar emphysema is often more severe in which part of the lung due to smoking?

upper lobes

conversely panacinar enlargement tends to be more sever in the lower lungs

6

How does smoking contribute to the development of emphysema?

proteases derived form neutrophils and macrophages that accumulate in the lungs of smokers, increased proteases like elastase (and decreased alpha-1 antitrypsin) cause destruction of parenchyma

7

In asthma, what is responsible for accumulation of eosinophils and what role do eosinophils play in causing tissue damage?

eosinophils are attracted by chemotactic factors released by mast cells and chemokine eotaxin produced by bronchial epithelial cells, and IL-5 a T-cell derived cytokine

major basic protein of eosinophils causes epithelial damage and shedding

8

What is the cause of airflow obstruction in cystic fibrosis?

multifactorial: dynamic compression of inflamed and overly compliant airways, airway obstruction form inspissated mucus, and state airway narrowing from airway inflammation

patchy centrilobar emphysema may play a minor role and in some individuals bronchospasms