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Flashcards in SMO414 Deck (38):

what is strategy?

the formulation of the organization's mission, goals, objectives and action plans for how the organization will achieve goals


What are the three parts of a business strategy and explain them

goals - various goals are set based on mission
product markets - what services/products for which markets
competitive premise - is competitive advantage sustainable


What is the Diamond E Model

Management Preferences


What is the Organizational Environment made up of?

economic trends
legal system
social trends
labour force


What is the Human Resource Systems made up of?

Human resource planning, training and selection
training and development
job design and work organization
performance management, compensation and rewards
employee voice and representation


How to manage retention

selection criteria - look at personality and employment history
increase cost of leaving
firm specific training
good practices


what are essential skills that employers demand

document use
oral communication
problem solving
digital technology
working with other
continuous learning


what is the ideal employee of the future and how does it affect jobs?

robots - almost 50% of jobs in US are at risk of automation


stats on diversity

becoming increasingly diverse
more of workforce1 is older
a quarter of labour force is immigrants
almost a quarter of labour force are visible minorities
45% of workforce are women


how do you manage diversity?

review recuriting and selection to ensure open and objective
review HR policies for potential barriers
inventory staff and compare to labour force availability
train and educate in diversity issues


what is an adverse impact

occurs when selection rate for a protected group is lower than that for the relevant comparison group


what is the 4/5th rule?

protected group should be passing 80% of non-protect groups


what are the four designated groups?

women, disabilities, first nations, visible minorities


what is employment equity?

the correction of the condition of disadvantage in employment
removal of barriers in working conditions
special measures/accommodations for 4 designated groups in canada


who do the employment equity regulations apply to?

1. federal gov and employees
2. federally regulated employers and federal crown corporations
3. under the federal contractor's program, provincially regulated employers with 100+ employees who wish to bid on $1million+ contracts


what are the steps to employment equity?

1. review HR policies and practices to remove any barriers to employment for protected groups
2. survey international workforce to determine designated group representation
3. collect labour market data
4. compare steps 2 and 3 to determine if significant under representation of designated groups - 4/5th rule
5. set goal and timetable to close gap


what should employers consider when setting the goal and timetable to close the gap

organizational plans and strategy
job vacancies
turnover rates
availability of qualified designated group members internally and in labour force


what does employment equity NOT require employers to do?

dont have to hire unqualified applicants
dont have to establish a quota
dont have to violate established seniority policies or policies under collective agreement
dont have to terminate non designated group members to achieve goals


what is the VRIO model

says when employees are a source of competitive advantage:
Valuable - add value through performance, skills, ability
Rare - skills in short supply
Imitability - hard to easily imitate
Organizational support - systems contribute to success of employee


what are examples of employee involvement mechanisms

suggestion systems
job autonomy
employee problem solving groups
self managed teams
labour management committees


what is the cost leader strategy

focus on decreasing costs as much as possible


what are sources of lower cost?

cheaper land
cheaper energy
cheaper labour
lower taxes
cheaper raw materials and parts
tighter inventory control (ie Just In Time inventory)
economies of scale


what is the risk of cost leader strategy?

risk of being too cheap - still need to maintain level of quality


what are the characteristics of cost leader strategy?

work design - repetitive, simple, specialized on few tasks so worker can get efficient
employee qualifications and selection systems - minimal qualifications, standardize job applications, referral, minimal testing, simple or group interviews
training systems - simple, short, demonstrating basic procedures, video
performance appraisals and feedback - minimal, annually, done by immediate supervisor, use quantitative data, on the job feedback
pay and rewards - minimum wage, employee of month, discount, on the job praise
employee involvement mechanisms - minimal, suggestion systems, turnover isnt bad


what is the differentiator strategy?

offers product or service that is unique and valuable to customers
allows firm to charge premium prices, increase market share and retain customer loyalty
achieved through superior service/quality/customization/unique style and design/proprietary technology, brand image/reputation


what are the characteristics of the differentiator strategy

work design - autonomy, flexible, more complex, greater responsibility
employee qualifications and selection systems - more highly educated, technical/specialized knowledge, related experience, personality characteristics (problem solving. critical thinking), background check, intensive testing and intensive interviews
training systems - more intensive, quality control techniques, ongoing training, developmental
performance appraisals and feedback - top down approach, coworker feedback, customer surveys and feedback, frequent and regular
pay and rewards - higher pay and benefits, bonuses based on success of company (profit share, stock ownership), skill based pay, pay with more schooling and training
employee involvement mechanisms - high employee involvement, two way communication


what is the best cost strategy

give customers value by producing low cost products or services but still add upscale features or maintain high level of quality


what are some ways high quality can reduce cost?

less need for repairs
less waste of raw materials, parts, energy, labour
less delayed deliveries
lower insurance costs
lower warranty costs
lower legal costs


what are the characteristics of best cost strategy?

work design - broaden job descriptions, more responsibilities and duties, more motivated to manage everything
employee qualifications and selection systems - adaptable, precise, accurate, quality conscientious, ability to self manage, work samples, work testing, personality testing
training systems - senior employees conduct training, on the job training, ongoing training, cross training
performance appraisals and feedback - coworkers give appraisals, customer surveys
pay and rewards - lump sum bonuses, performance based pay, gain sharing, profit sharing
employee involvement mechanisms - more employees innvolved, autonomy in workplace, suggestion systems


what is culture

system of shared values and norms
values - whats important
norms - whats appropriate attitudes and behaviours


define emploiyee engagement

heightened emotional and intellectual connection that employee has for their job/org/coworkers that influences employee to apply additional discretionary effort


how can you increase employee engagement

stock ownership and profit shares
managers interact with employees and work on the line
employee association
employee voice mechanisms ie suggestion systems
job autonomy
recognition of good performance
cross functional jobs


what is a job analysis

process of gathering info on jobs in org by interviews, questionnaires, observation, logs, electronic monitoring


what are the uses of job analysis

orientation of new employee
work redesign
recruiting and selection
training needs
setting performance standards
career planning
establish BFOR


what are competencies

knowledge, skills, attitude and behaviour that identifies successful employee


what is a limitation of job analysis information

very present oriented


what are the types of competencies

core - necessary for all jobs
functional - necessary for all jobs in job family
job - necessary for that particular job


what are some enabling competencies

strategic and systems thinking
professional and ethical thinking
analytical decision thinking
change management and cultural transformation
conflict resolution
relationship management