Flashcards in Soc, Cult, & Reform, 1790-1860 Deck (45):
This term refers to the United States before the Civil War.
Many of the significant reform movements in American history began during the 1830s. Which era is this?
Name four of the major reform movements in America that began during the Jacksonian Era.
2.Temperance (prohibition of liquor)
3.Suffrage (equal rights for women/voting)
4.Abolitionism (abolishing slavery)
In the 1830s, this term refers to a wave of religious enthusiasm that spread across America, where middle-class women played an important role making Americans aware that slavery was a sin.
The Second Great Awakening
Which movement did the Second Great Awakening help to promote?
Revivalism (religious preaching) in New York took off by this individual appealing to people's emotions and fears of damnation.
Charles G. Finney
Upstate New York earned this nickname during the Second Great Awakening because the area was the center of religious revivalism and received many traveling evangelists.
"Burnt-over District" ("Hell-Fire-and-Brimstone" revival sermons)
Preacher William Miller predicted the second coming of Christ on October 21, 1844. His disappointed followers, the Millerites, eventually became the Seventh-Day Adventists. What was this religion originally called?
Who founded the Mormon religion?
Brigham Young, Mormon leader, led a mass migration of Mormons across the Great Plains and settled in which new Mormon area?
Salt Lake City, Utah (Great Salt Lake)
Which Mormon practice attracted hostility from the U.S. government?
Polygamy (a man could have more than one wife)
This philosophical movement argued for discovering one's inner self and looked for the essence of God in nature. Challenged materialism of American Society and supported the antislavery movement.
This philosophical movement emphasized living a simple life and celebrating the truth found in nature and in personal emotion and imagination.
Which two famous American writers followed Transcendentalism?
Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau
This best-known transcendentalist argued in his essays and poems for self-reliance, independent thinking, and spiritual matters of materials ones.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
This Transcendentalist writer conducted a two-year experiment of living alone in the woods outside town. He observed nature to discover essential truths about life and the universe. He published his writings in a book called Walden.
Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau wrote an influential essay titled, "On Civil Disobedience" which promoted which important idea that would be used by both Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.?
Nonviolent protest (nonviolent movements)
This term refers to the belief that humans can create communities based upon cooperation and mutual respect. Some of these utopian communities were Brook Farm, New Harmony, and Oneida Community.
Perfectionism (Utopian Communities)
This communal experiment founded by George Ripley, wanted to create a perfect union between intellectual and manual labor. Wanted to live out transcendentalist ideals. Failed, but remembered for its artistic creativity.
This community was founded by "Mother" Ann Lee. They held property in common and kept women and men strictly separate; no marriage or sexual relations. Failed.
This utopian community founded by Robert Owen was a secular (nonreligious) experiment. Wanted to create a utopian socialist community to solve the problems of inequity caused by the Industrial Revolution. Failed.
This cooperative community founded by John Humphrey Noyes became controversial because members shared property and marriage partners. Failed.
This utopian community founded by Charles Fourier wanted to solve the problems of a competitive society and advocated that people share work and living arrangements. Failed.
Why did so many utopian communities fail?
Americans proved too individualistic to live in these communal utopias.
Horace Greeley was a New York Tribune editor and came up with which famous quote that symbolized Manifest Destiny?
"Go West Young Man, Go West"
This was a group of artists led by Thomas Cole, who painted landscapes emphasizing America's natural beauty. First art school in America.
Hudson River School
This famous American novelist wrote stories the glorified the frontiersman. He wrote The Last of the Mohicans, The Pathfinder, and The Deerslayer.
James Fenimore Cooper
The high rate of alcohol consumption in America caused factory owners and politicians to join with religious reformers because they believed prohibition could reduce crime and poverty. What is the term to describe this movement?
The Women's Christian Temperance Union founded by Carry Nation convinced many women that they had a moral responsibility to improve society by accomplishing what?
Prohibition (banning alcohol)
Which movement was led by Dorothea Dix, who worked for the better treatment of people with mental and emotional disabilities? She was not connected to the women's rights movement.
Public Asylum Movement
Horace Mann was the leader of the free school movement and worked to make school compulsory (mandatory) for all children. What does public eduction actually refer too?
Free (tax-supported) schools
These were the best known schoolbooks in the 19th century that were used to teach Americans how to read. Included stories about patriotism and moral values.
This idea refers to the idealization of women in their roles as wives and mothers. This concept suggested that women would be responsible for raising their children to be virtuous citizens of the new American republic.
Republican Motherhood or Cult of Domesticity
Sarah Grimke and Angelina Grimke were the first women to publicly support which two significant reform movements?
Abolition and Women's Rights
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton strongly supported which two reform movements?
Abolition and Women's Rights
In 1848, leading feminists held the first women's rights convention in American history. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony led the campaign for equal voting and property rights.
Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
The women's rights movement during the 1830-1840s would become overshadowed by what other controversial issue?
What is another term used to describe the antislavery movement?
William Lloyd Garrison founded this antislavery newspaper that began the radical abolitionist movement. He called for "immediate and uncompensated emancipation of slaves."
The Liberator (1831)
The purpose of this group was to promote the idea of transporting freed slaves to an African colony. Was not successful and opposed slavery on the basis of removing blacks from white society.
American Colonization Society (1817)
This political party of northerners wanted to end slavery by political and legal means.
Who were the most outspoken and convincing critics of slavery.
Black Abolitionists (escaped slaves and free blacks)
This former slave spoke about the brutality and degradation of slavery from firsthand experience and started the antislavery journal, The North Star. He also championed equal rights for women and Native Americans.
An example of violent abolitionism is when this slave led a revolt in Virginia in 1831, but would only result in stricter black codes and southern actions became more severe.
Nat Turner (1831)