Flashcards in Social Explanation of Crime and Anti Social Behaviour. Deck (27):
Define Crime ?
Crime is an act or omission of an act that it is against the law.
Define Anti Social Behaviour ?
Anti social behaviours a common offence and is behaviour that affects other people negatively for example acting drunk and disorderly.
Define recidivism ?
Some individuals fail to respond to punishment and reoffend, persistent reoffending is referred to as recidivism.
What does the social approach of to explaining criminal behaviour assume ?
The social approach to explaining criminal and anti social behaviour assumes that behaviour is shaped by the people around us - supporting the nurture side of the nature nurture debate.
what are the two social explanations for criminal behaviour we study ?
1) Social Learning Theory
2) Labelling and self-fulfilling prophecy
Who developed social learning theory and what did he propose ?
Social learning theory was developed chiefly by Albert Bandura, he proposed observational learning as a major mechanism in explaining all human behaviour. social learning theorists argue that people do not just imitate everything they observe. Whether a person imitates what they observe is influenced by observing others being rewarded and punished.
what are the 5 main principles suggested by social learning theory ?
1) Observational learning is where people learn by observing and imitating the behaviour of role models. "Modelling refers to both behaviour being demonstrated and reproduced.
2) People make a choice about who they observe and imitate.
3) People are more likely to imitate a high status/well respected same sex model
4) People are more likely to imitate if they see their model rewarded, this is called vicarious reinforcement. Vicarious punishment is where an individual is less likely to copy the role models behaviour as they have seen them punished.
5) They are more likely to imitate the behaviour id they themselves are directly rewarded for it (positive reinforcement)
How does social learning theory differ from operant conditioning ?
Bandura emphasised that children behaviours did not need to be reinforced to be learnt. People will imitate behaviour without being reinforced in anyway.
Another way social learning theory differs from operant conditioning is that, rather than regarding people as passive respondents to external stimuli it argues that behaviour. Various cognitive processes influence whether a person observes and then goes on to imitate behaviour.
What are the four stages in social learning ?
Bandura proposed that there were four important stags in social learning that incorporated the cognitive elements of learning:
Describe the social learning stage of Attention ?
Behaviour is noticed and we must concentrate on it to be able to imitate it. We are more likely to show an interest in the behaviour if models of it are of higher status/ well respected and of the same sex. We are more likely to be attracted to behaviour that is distinctive to us in some way. So we make a choice about what behaviour is observed and imitated.
Describe the social learning stage of Retention ?
The behaviour has to be remembered to be imitated.
Describe the social learning stage of Reproduction ?
The person has to be capable of reproducing the behaviour. We have to have the mental and physical abilities to enable us the imitate the behaviour.
Describe the social learning stage of Motivation ?
There is often an incentive present encouraging us to imitate behaviour. This often takes the form of vicarious or direct reinforcement.
How does social learning theory explain criminal behaviour ?
According to Social learning Theory, an individual can not learn offending behaviour without observing someone commit a crime, either directly such as a peer or indirectly through watching crime-related television programmes. The individuals must be motivated to reproduce the observed behaviour, which occurs as a result of vicarious or direct reinforcement. If an individual watches a criminal getting away with an offence or reaping rewards, this may act as vicarious reinforcement for the observer. On television, antisocial behaviour and criminality are often glamourised and violence can be committed by the "good guys". These role models may provide vicarious reinforcement, particularly in the absence of punishment. Social learning theory highlights the importance of cognitive thinking processes of a person, someone may not choose to commit a crime immediately after observing it; the behaviour can happen a lot later. If news or crime programmes document the negative consequences of committing an offence, this may work towards encouraging an individual not to try the offence to seek a positive outcome.
What laboratory experiment supports the social learning theory as an explanation of criminal and antisocial behaviour ?
Bandura (1961) transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models study is a laboratory experiment that supports the social learning theory as an explanation of criminal and antisocial behaviour.
What is the aim of Bandura's (1961) transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models study ?
To see whether children will imitate aggressive behaviour when given the opportunity if they saw these behaviours in a different environment and the original model is no longer present.
What was the sample of Bandura's (1961) transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models study ?
72 children (36 boys and 36 girls) from Stanford university Nursery aged 3-5 years old.
What was the independent variable and dependent variable of Bandura's (1961) transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models study ?
Independent variable: The type of model observed by the children (aggressive, non-egressive or no model)
Dependent variable: The amount of imitative behaviour and aggression demonstrated by the children in a later situation, measured through covert structured observation.
What is the procedure of Bandura's (1961) transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models study
Phase 1: Observing the model. the children were individually tested. In room 1 they were encouraged to play with the toys, then the model came into the room in the opposite corner. After 1 minutes the model acted out their condition towards the bobo doll
Agressive: punched, sat on and hit the bobo doll with a mallet. saying phrases such s "pow" and "hit him"
Non-aggressive: Quietly assembled the tinker toys
Control: non model
Phase 2: Agression arousal. All children (including control )were taken to room 2 where they were subjected to mild aggression arousal being told they could not have the toys
Phase 3: Test delayed imitation. All children were taken to room. 3 with the toys and their behaviour is observed for 20 minutes at 5 second interval. Their behaviour was categorised as: Imitation of the aggressive model, partial imitation and non-imitative for physical and verbal aggression.
What is the results of Bandura's (1961) transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models study?
1) The Children in the aggressive condition made more aggressive responses than the children in the non-aggressive model condition
2) Boys imitated more aggressive responses than girls
3) The boys in the aggressive model condition showed more aggressive responses if the model was male than if the model was female.
What are the conclusions of Bandura's (1961) transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models study
The findings support Bandura's Social Learning Theory. This is, children learn social behaviour such as aggression through the process of observational learning.
Direct reinforcement is not needed for learning.
Children will imitate aggressive behaviour when given the opportunity even if they see these behaviours in a different environment and the original model is no longer present.
What is a naturalistic experiment ?
Naturalistic experiments is a type of experiment that occurs in a natural setting and where the independent variable is naturally occurring rather than being manipulated by the experimenter.
Describe the Naturalistic experiment which supports the social learning theory as an explanation of criminal and antisocial behaviour ?
Williams (1986) wanted to show the effect of TV aggression on behaviour of children. His sample consisted of sixteen 6 to 11 year old children in an isolated community in British Columbia, Canada, where TV had previously been unavailable. She used an natural experiment in the field with a longitudinal design. The behaviour of the children was assessed over a two year period following the introduction of TV for the first time. Teachers and peers gave ratings of aggression levels. the independent variable was before and after the introduction of TV and the dependent variable was the ratings of aggression.
The results showed significant increases in aggressive behaviour, regardless of sex and how much TV was watched. There was no corresponding increases over the to years in two comparison communities where TV was already available. Williams concluded the introduction of TV lead to an increase in aggression.
Describe a correlational study which supports the social learning theory as an explanation of criminal and antisocial behaviour ?
Johnson et al (2002) aimed to assess impact of TV viewing habits on behaviour using a correlational study with a longitudinal design. Johnson investigated investigated children form 707 families in New York State, the families were divided into low and high TV watchers. Viewing habits were monitored over 20 years. Self reports and family reports were collected of aggressive behaviour Ising rating scales. The results showed those who watched more than 1 hour of TV per day also committed the highest number of violent acts. Johnson concluded than watching more than 1 hour of TV per day significantly increases aggression especially between the ages of 14 and 16 years old.
How does the social learning theory as an explanation of criminal and antisocial behaviour describe gender differences in crime rates ?
Social learning theory explains difference in criminal behaviour between sexes by proposing that males and female children are usually socialised differently. For example boys are encouraged to observe and imitate male role models and are reinforced for risk taking behaviour. Whereas girls imitate female role models and are less likely to be reinforced for antisocial behaviour.
What are the strengths of the social learning theory as an explanation of criminal and antisocial behaviour ?
1) the theory has supporting evidence from Badura's series of laboratory experiment that she aggressive behaviour is learnt through the observation of role models as well as Williams Naturalistic experiment and Johnson's correlation study which show a link between violence in the media and aggression.
2) The theory can explain cultural differences in anti social and criminal behaviour as different culture may provided different role models for children. It can also explain gender differences in criminal beaviour with males being exposed to more risk taking and violent behaviour for them to observe and imitate than females. Furthermore it explains individual differences in why some people commit crimes and other don't as everyone has different role models. so a child exposed to violent role models are more likely to be a violent criminal than those who rant exposed to these types of role models.
3) The methodology of the research that underpins the theory is very scientific. As Badura's series of laboratory experiments provide credible scientific evidence linking observation of role models to aggressive behaviour so reliable cause and effect links can be established due to good control of the independent variable and confounding variables.
4) Applications have arisen from this theory as research in this field has led society to be much more aware of the power of role models and the fact that children learn by observation. The Development of this theory has lead to attempts being made to control violence in the media by censorship. For example films and video games are subject to a certification system to prevent violent behaviour to be exposed to young children.