Social influence Flashcards Preview

AQA: A Level Psychology Paper 2 > Social influence > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social influence Deck (58)
Loading flashcards...
1

Conformity [definition]:

A type of Social influence that can be described as changing your behavior to go along with the group even if you do not agree with the group.

2

The Asch effect [3]:

- Solomon Asch conducted several experiments in the 1950s to determine how people are affected by the thoughts and behaviours of other people.
- He identified many variables affecting conformity including group size, unanimity and task difficulty.
- The Asch effect is the influence of the group majority on an individual’s judgement.

3

Motivation to conform [3]:

- The researchers, Deutsch & Gerard (1955) categorised the motivation to conform into two types
- Normative Social Influence
- Informational Social Influence

4

How many types of Conformity have been identified by researchers?

3

5

What are the types of Conformity? [3]:

- Internalisation
- Identification
- Compliance

6

What are the two types of motivation to conform as identified by Deutsch & Gerard (1955)?

Normative and informational social influence

7

Who conducted several experiments in the 1950s to determine how people are affected by the thoughts and behaviours of other people?

Solomon Asch

8

Identification [definition]:

When someone conforms to the demand of a social role in society
- An example of this is the Zimbardo (1971) Stanford Prison experiment

9

Compliance [definition]:

Compliance is going along with a request or demand in public whilst disagreeing with the group's viewpoint or behaviour in private

10

Compliance [2]:

-The change in people's expressed views is temporary
- In Asch’s (1951) studies, participants would comply in public and answer questions incorrectly. But in private, they did not agree with the incorrect answers they supplied in public.

11

The Asch effect [3]:

- Asch (1951) conducted an experiment looking at normative social influence
- He wanted to see if people would conform to a group's wrong answer even if the answer was unambiguous
- The Asch effect is the influence of the group's majority view on an individual’s judgment

12

Asch(1951) the line judgement task [2]:

- A group of participants were shown a series of printed line segments of different lengths: a, b, and c, and then a fourth line segment: x.
- They were asked to identify which line segment from the first group most closely resembled the length of line segment x.

13

Confederate [definition]:

- A person who is aware of the experiment and works for the researches. They used to manipulate social situations as part of the research design

14

Confederates in Asch's experiment [3]:

-In Asch's study, the confederates identified a line segment that was obviously shorter than the target line - a wrong answer.
- Each group of participants had only one true naive subject

15

Results of Asch's line judgement task:

- 75% of naive participants conformed to group pressure and indicated the incorrect line which had been chosen by other group members

16

What percentage of participants conformed (at least once) to the incorrect majority in Asch's (1951) line judgement task?

75%

17

Analysing Asch's(1951) experiment on conformity [5]:

+ The laboratory setting meant variables were strictly controlled. This meant:
+ The experiment could be repeated easily.
+ The influence of extraneous variables (those not being studied) could be minimised.
- Artificial situation - this means the experiment has low ecological validity (and cannot be generalised well to real-life situations).
- Deception - real participants did not know the other participants were confederates.

18

Advantages of variables being strictly controlled in Asch's (1951) experiment on conformity [2]:

- Experiment could be repeated easily
- Influence of extraneous variables (those not being studied) could be minimised

19

Cons of Asch's (1951) Experimental Methods [2]:

- Artificial situation - this means the experiment has low ecological validity (and cannot be generalised well to real-life situations).
- Deception - real participants did not know the other participants were confederates.

20

Confidence in Asch's study [2]:

- Asch found that participants who had not conformed all displayed confidence.
- Participants who felt confident in their decisions did not succumb to group pressure as easily.

21

Perin and Spencer (1980) [3]:

- They carried out Asch's experiment on engineering students
- Conformity rates were not as high as Asch's experiment
- This may be because the engineers were confident in their decision making

22

Eagly and Carli (1981)- gender [2]:

- Before the 1970s, many psychologists felt that women conformed more than men.
- But when Eagly and Carli (1981) analysed conformity research data, they found inconsistencies in sex differences. They found that males and females differed most in studies where audiences created group pressure.

23

Eagly(1987)-gender [3]:

- Eagly (1987) believed that men and women show different levels of conformity because of their different social roles.
- Women are more likely to conform because they don't like group conflict.
- Men are less likely to conform because they are expected to show independence and assertiveness.

24

Who did Perrin and Spencer carry out Asch's experiment on?

Engineering students

25

Wiesenthal et al (1976):

Observed that participants who were confident in their ability to complete a task were not as likely to conform.

26

In what year did Asch carry out his experiment on conformity?

1951

27

Sherif (1935) Autokinetic Effect Experiment- method [5]:

- Laboratory experiment.
- Sherif used the autokinetic effect. This is where a dot of light is projected onto a screen in a dark room.
- The light appears to move even though it's not moving. - The dot appearing to move is a visual illusion.
Participants were led to believe that someone was moving the light.
- They were asked to guess how far the light moved.

28

How many phases were involved Sherif's 1935 autokinetic effect experiment?

3

29

What were the phases in Sherif's 1935 autokinetic effect experiment? [3]:

- Phase 1: Participants made guesses individually.
- Phase 2: Participants made guesses in groups of three.
- Phase 3: Participants made guesses individually.

30

Sherif (1935)- results [3]:

- In phase 1, individual guesses varied a lot (by 20cm - 80cm).
- In phase 2, participant's guesses tended to converge to a common estimate.
- In phase 3, individuals made guesses closer to the common group estimates than their initial estimates.