Flashcards in Social Processes, Attitude, & Behavior. Deck (34):
What is social action?
First discovered by Max Weber. Social Action is actions and behaviors that individuals are conscious of and performing because others are around. How people change their behavior due to their environment.
What is social facilitation?
People perform better on simple tasks when they're in the presence of others-- being watched.
What is the “Yerkes–Dodson law of social facilitation”
This law states that human will perform better at simple tasks while being watched, but will also do worse on tasks they're not skilled at when being watched.
Phenomena that states an individual will act differently in a group setting that is inconsistent with his normal behavior. Can lead to antinormative behavior, or behavior against what is the norm. Anonymity allows the individual to act out.
Describe the bystander effect:
States that groups of people will not intervene to help a victim for several reasons.
What is social loafing?
People in a group setting might put less effort while in a group than they would do normally.
What is identity shift effect?
The effect states that when an individual's harmony is disrupted by the threat of social rejection, then the individual must conform and change in order to not feel rejected.
What is cognitive dissonance?
The presence of two opposing view points or opinions which causes turmoil in an individual.
Describe the Soloman Asch experiment.
Tried to demonstrate the power of conforming to a group. An group gives a wrong answer, and it tests if the subject would likely give the wrong answer or right answer.
What is group polarization?
The idea that people in a group tend to form extreme views. Either too extreme or too cautious.
Describe group thinking.
In order to maintain harmony and eliminate conflict, the group makes a poor or incorrect decision. Reduces critical thinking in order for please everyone. Irving Janis is associated with this.
What is assimilation?
The process through which one culture is blended or joined together with another culture. Usually uneven, melting pot.
What are ethnic enclaves?
Location with high concentration of ethnic groups- China town.
What is multiculturalism?
Communities with multiple cultures which are celebrates together. The community is a cultural mosaic and coexistence of different cultures.
What are subcultures?
groups within the culture, usually is associated with a negative connotation because they don't fit the norm of the culture.
Describe the different types of socialization:
Primary: done during childhood and learned via parents.
Secondary: done during teenage years, learned in different small social groups like school, church, sports.
Anticipatory: anticipating social changes--marriage.
Resocialization: forget old social beliefs for new ones.
Norms and Mores
Norms are things normal to a society or culture. Mores are widely accepted social norms. These can changes from culture to culture.
What are agents of socialization?
The way humans interact with each other and who we interact with. Constantly changing medium.
What is deviance?
Deviance is straying away from the social norm. It doesn't always have to be a bad thing.
What are stigmas?
Stigmas are dislikes towards a particular trait, group, idea, belief, etc which strays away from the norm.
Describe labeling theory:
The labels we are given effect how others precieve us, but also how we perceive ourselves.
Contrast internalization and identification.
Internalization is both conforming and agreeing to ideas.
Identification is conforming, but questioning the ideas.
What is compliance?
Compliance is agreeing to a behavior even though the person ordering doesn't have the power to order.
What is the foot in the door technique?
Asking a small favor, complying, then asking for a bigger favor.
What is the door in foot technique?
Asking for a big favor, being rejected, then asking for a small(intended) favor.
What is the lowball technique?
Asking a favor, agreeing, then raising the value of the favor to something bigger. "more than you bargained for"
What is the "that's not all" technique?
seen in infomercials. Offering something, then offering more than expected.
What is obedience? how is it different from compliant?
Obedience is taking order from an authority figure. Compliant is taking orders from a non authority figure.
What are the components of attitude?
Affect: how one feels about something.
Behavioral: how one behaves towards something.
Cognition: how one thinks of something.
What are the components of the functional attitude theory:
Knowledge- provides organization and stability
ego expressive- communicate your feeling and emotions
ego defensive- protect self esteem.
adaptive- accepted if attitude changes
What is the learning theory of attitude?
We learn our attitude about things through contact and communication with others. This is good, this is bad.
What is the likelihood elaboration theory of attitude?
Attitude is on a continuum.
Central route: more focused on detail
Peripheral route: more focused on superficial.
What is the social cognitive theory?
Humans learn through observation of others to learn.