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Flashcards in Social Processes, Attitudes, & Behavior Deck (53):
1

Michelangelo Phenomenon

The concept of self is made up of both the intrapersonal self, the ideas an individual has regarding his own abilities, traits, and beliefs; AND, the interpersonal self, the manner in which others influence creation of the ideal self.

2

Social Action

Actions and behaviors that individuals are conscious of and performing because others are around.

3

Social Facilitation

People tend perform better on simple tasks when in the presence of other. People naturally exhibit a performance response when they know they are being watched.

4

Yerkes-Dodson Law of Social Facilitation

Being in the presence of others will significantly raise arousal, which enhances the ability to perform tasks one is already good at (simple tasks) and hinders performance of less familiar tasks (complex tasks).

5

Deindividuation

Social phenomenon that occurs when individuals are in group settings. The presence of a large group that provides anonymity and causes a loss off individual identity.

6

Antinormative behavior (behavior against the norm)

With anonymity, more likely to act in a manner that is inconsistent with his normal self.

7

Social Loafing

The tendency of individuals to put less effort when in a group setting individually.

8

Identity Shift Effect

When an individual's state of harmony is disrupted by a threat of social rejection, the individual will often conform to the norms of the group.

Upon doing so, the individual will begin to experience internal conflict because the behavior is outside the normal character of the individual. To eliminate the sense of conflict, the individual experiences an identity shift wherein the individuals adopts the standards of the group as her own.

9

Cognitive Dissonance

The simultaneous presence presence of two opposing thoughts or opinions.

Individuals will often conform to an opinion held by the group.

10

Social Interaction

Explores the ways in which two or more individuals can both shape each other's behavior. These include group processes and establishment of cultures.

11

Group Polarization

The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the individual ideas and inclinations of the members within the group. Polarization can lead to riskier decisions--known as a risky shift.

HOWEVER, realized that groups can also shift toward caution so the term changed to choice shift

Polarization is used to describe the behavior at the individual level.

Choice Shift is used to describe the behavior of the group as a whole.

12

Group Think

A phenomenon in which a desire for harmony results in a group of people coming to an incorrect or poor decision.

13

Eight Factors Indicative of Group Think

1. Illusion of Invulnerability--the creation of optimism and encouragement of risk-taking

2. Collective Rationalization--ignoring warnings against the idea of the group

3. Illusion of Morality--the belief that the group's decisions are morally correct
4. Excessive Stereotyping--the construction of stereotypes against outside opinions

5. Pressure for Conformity--self-censorship

6. Self-Censorship--the withholding of opposing views

7. Illusion of Unanimity--the false sense of agreement within the group

8. Mindguards--the appointment of members to the role of protecting against opposing views.

14

Cultural Assimilation

Melting pot

Integrates new aspects of a society and culture with old ones. Typically not an even blend. The process by which an individual's or group's behavior and culture begin to resemble that of another group.

15

Four Primary Factors Two Access Completeness of Migrant Assimilation

1. Socioeconomic Status
2. Geographic Distribution
3. Language Attainment
4. Intermarriage

16

Ethnic Enclaves


Locations with a high concentration of one specific ethnicity

17

Multiculturalism

Cultural Mosaic

Communities or societies containing multiple cultures. Encourages, respects, and celebrates cultural diversity.

18

What are the similarities between group polarization and group think?

Group polarization and group thing are both social processes that occur when groups makes decisions. Group polarization is the tendency toward extreme decisions in a group. Group think is the tendency for groups to make decisions based on ideas and solutions that arise within the group without considering outside ideas, given the pressure to conform and remain loyal to the group.

19

Socialization

The process of developing, inheriting, and spreading norms, customs, and beliefs.

20

Primary Socialization

Occurs during childhood when we initially learn acceptable actions and attitudes in our society, primarily through observation of our parents and other adults in close proximity.

21

Secondary Socialization

The process of learning appropriate behavior within smaller sections of the larger society. Occurs outside of the home and is based on learning the rules of specific social environments.

22

Anticipatory Socialization

The process by which a person prepares for future changes in occupations, living situations, or relationships.

23

Resocializtion

A process by which one discards old behaviors in favor of new ones to make a life change.

24

Deviance

Any violation of norms, rules, or expectations within a society. Can be positive or negative--any act that goes against societal norms.

25

Social Stigma

the extreme disapproval or dislike of a person or group based on perceived differences from the rest of society.

26

Labeling Theory

Posits that labels given to people affect not only how others respond to that person, but also the person's self-image.

27

Conformity (majority influence)

Matching one's attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to societal norms.

Normative Conformity--the desire to fit into a group because of fear of rejection.

28

Internalization

Changing one's own behavior to fit with a group while also privately agreeing with the ideas of the group.

29

Identification

The acceptance of others' ideas without questioning them.

30

Compliance

A change in behavior based on a direct request. The person or group that asks the individual to make the change typically has no actual power or authority to command the individual, yet will ask him to change his behavior.

31

Foot-in-the-door

A small request is made, and after gaining compliance a larger request is made.

32

Lowball Technique (bait and switch)

The requestor will get an initial commitment from an individual and then raise the cost of the committment.

33

That's-not-all Technique

An individual is made an offer but before making a decision is told the deal is even better than she expected.

34

Obedience

Changing one's behavior in response to a direct order from an authority figure.

Milgram

35

Social Cognition

The ways in which people think about others and how these ideas impact behavior.

36

Components of Attitude: ABC

Affective
Behavioral
Cognitive

37

Attitude

The expression of positive or negative feelings toward a person, place, thing, or scenario.

38

Affective Component of Attitude

The emotional component of attitude. The component of attitude refers to the way a person feels toward something.

39

Behavioral component of attitude

The way a person acts with respect to something.

40

The Cognitive Component of Attitude

The way an individual thinks about something.

41

Functional Attitudes Theory


Attitudes serve four functions: knowledge, ego expression, adaptation, and ego defense

42

Functional Attitudes Theory:Knowledge

Provides consistency and stability, helps to provide organization to thoughts and experiences, and knowing the attitudes of others helps predict their behavior.

43

Functional Attitudes Theory:
Ego-Expressive

Allows us to communicate and solidify our self-identity.

44

Functional Attitudes Theory:
Adaptive

The idea that one will be accepted if socially acceptable attitudes are expressed.

45

Learning Theory

Posits that attitudes are developed through different forms of learning.

46

Elaboration Likelihood Model

Separates individuals on a continuum, based on their processing of persuasive information.

47

Central Route Processing

People who draw conclusions based on deep-thinking

48

Peripheral Route Processing

Persons who make decisions based on superficial details, the appearance of person delivering the argument. Easily persuaded.

49

Social Cognitive Theory

Postulates that people learn to behave and shape attitudes by observing the behaviors of others.

Three factors:
1. Behavior
2. Personal Factors
3. Environment

Bandura's Triadic Causation shows how the three factors influence each other.

50

What are the three components of attitude?

1. Affective
2. Behavioral
3. Cognitive

51

What are the four functional areas of the functional attitudes theory?

1. Knowledge
2. Ego Expression
3. Adaptation
4. Ego defense

52

What are the routes of processing used to explain the elaboration likelihood model? Which is associated with high elaboration?

Central Route Processing -- associated with high elaboration

Peripheral Route Processing

53

What are the three factors in Bandura's Triadic reciprocal causation?

1. Personal Factors
2. Behavioral Factors
3. Environmental Factors