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Flashcards in Social Psychology Deck (92):
0

_____________ are more abstract than schemata and consist of knowledge about the most representative or ideal example of a particular category of people, objects, or evvents.

Prototypes

1

Also known as even schemas and provide knowledge about the appropriate sequence of behaviors in specific social situations. Informs you about how you should behave in a setting and how you can expect others to behave.

Scripts

2

What has research indicated about gender and attributions?

a. Men tend to attribute their success to high effort or outside help
b. Women tend to attribute failure to lack of effort or unfair treatment
c. Women attribute their success to high effort or outside help
d. Men tend to attribute failure to lack of ability

c

3

This occurs when we overestimate the role of dispositional factors and underestimate the role of situational factors.

Fundamental attribution bias

4

The tendency to make different attributions about our own behaviors and the behaviors of others is referred to as this.

Actor-observer effect

5

The tendency to blame external factors for our failures and take credit for our successes is referred to as this.

Self-serving bias

6

What is one exception to the relatively universal self-serving bias?

People who are depressed attribute their failures to internal, stable, and global factors

7

Mental shortcuts or rules-of-thumb that people use when making attributions and other social judgements.

Heuristics

8

This heuristic involves basing your judgment about the likelihood that a person,, object, or event belongs to a particular category on how similar the person, object, or event is to that category while ignoring the probability data.

Representative heuristic

9

This heuristic involves judging the likelihood or frequency of an event based on how easy it is to retrieve information about the even from long-term memory. In other words, you'll predict that an event is more likely to occur if you're able to recall many examples of its occurrence than if you're able to recall only one example.

Availability heuristic

10

This heuristic involves using mental simulations of an event to determine the likelihood that the event will happen. For instance, Medvec, Madey, and Gilovich found that Olympic athletes who had won the silver medal appeared to be less happy about their win than those who had won the bronze medal, apparently because it was easier for silver medalists to imagine winning the gold.

Simulation heuristic

11

This heuristic involves using an initial value as the basis for making a judgment or estimate. For example, if the seller of an item at a flea market tells you that he usually sells the item for $10, your offer will be closer to $10 than it would have been if the seller said he usually sells the item for $7.

Anchoring and adjustment heuristic

12

This is the tendency to pay attention to information that confirms one's beliefs and ignore or invalidate information that does not.

Confirmation bias

13

The tendency to rely on case-specific information and ignore or underuse data when estimating the likelihood of an event or characteristic.

Base rate fallacy

14

The belief that two characteristics, events, or other variables are related when they actually are not.

Illusory Correlation

15

Occurs when we overestimate the degree to which the beliefs, opinions, and behaviors of others are similar to our own. As an example, Wolfson asked college students who did or did not use drugs to estimate drug use by their peers and found that students who used drugs provided significantly higher estimates of peer drug use.

False consensus effect

16

The tendency to belief that the likelihood of a particular chance event is affected by the occurrence of previous events when there is actually no relationship between the events

Gambler's Fallacy

17

Schachter's research on affiliation demonstrated that, in anxiety-arousing situations, social __________ is a more potent determinant of affiliation than relief from discomfort and that the adage "misery loves company" is more accurately states as "misery loves miserable company."

Comparison

18

In terms of gender, women spend more time than men in conversation, and their friendships often depend more on communication and ___________ than on shared activities.

self-disclosure

19

This predicts that the decision to leave a relationship depends on tthe relationship's costs and rewards - i.e., we're likely to stay in a relationship when rewards exceed costs but leave when costs are greater than rewards:

a. Equity theory
b. Social exchange theory
c. Emotion-in-relationship model
d. none of the above

b

20

According to this, our perception of fairness in a relationship is more important than the absolute magnitude of the inputs and outcomes.

a. Equity theory
b. Social exchange theory
c. Emotion-in-relationship model
d. none of the above

a. People consider a relationship to be equitable and are more likely to stay when they believe their input/outcome ratio is proportional to the input/outcome ratio of the other person

21

This is the tendency for people to accept vague or general descriptions as accurate descriptions of themselves:

a. Self-schemas
b. Barnum effect
c. Overjustification hypothesis
d. Self-Verification theory

b

22

This theory, proposed by Daryl Bem, proposes that, when internal cues are insufficient or difficult to interpret, people acquire information about themselves by observing their external behaviors and/or the context in which those behaviors occur:

a. Social Comparison Theory
b. Self-Verification Theory
c. Psychodynamic Theory
d. Self-perception theory

d

23

This predicts that, when an external reward is given to a person performing an intrinsically rewarding activity, the person's intrinsic interest in the activity decreases:

a. Self-perception theory
b. Overjustification hypothesis
c. Self-monitoring
d. Locus of control

b

24

According to this theory established by Festinger, people have an innate drive to evaluate their own opinions and behaviors; and, in the absence of objective standards, they do so by comparing their opinions and behaviors to those of other people

a. Self-perception theory
b. Psychodynamic theory
c. Social comparison theory
d. Self-Verification theorry

c

25

This theory predicts that, once a person's self-concept is formed, the person seeks to maintain it by using cognitive and behavioral strategies that are designed to obtain information that is consistent with that self-concept:

a. Self-Perception theory
b. Social comparison theory
c. Self-Verification theory
d. Psychodynamic theory

c

26

As defined by Bandura, this refers to a person's sense of competence and effectiveness. High levels of this have been associated with a number of benefits including higher levels of productivity and academic achievement, reduced vulnerability to depression and anxiety, and better response to treatment for health-related problems:

a. hardiness
b. self-efficacy
c. locus of control
d. self-esteem

b

27

This refers to the extent to which people believe that personal outcomes are controlled by internal versus external factors:

a. Self-efficacy
b. Locus of control
c. Self-esteem
d. Self-verification

b

28

Early research on conformity by Sherif (1935) made use of the ___________ effect, a perceptual phenomenon in which a stationary point of light appears to move in a darkened room.

autokinetic

29

This strategy for gaining compliance is a two-step process that involves first making a small request and, when that request is accepted, making a larger request.

a. door-in-the-face technique
b. foot-in-the-door technique
c. autokinetic effect
d. minority influence

b

30

This strategy to gain compliance involves first making a large request and, when that request is rejected, making a smaller request that is the one that is actually desired.

a. door-in-the-face technique
b. foot-in-the-door technique
c. autokinetic effect
d. minority influence

a

32

In Milgram's controversial studies involving delivering electric shock, which of the following is true:

a. The closer the learner was to the teacher, the less likely the teacher was to obey the experimenter's order to shock the learner
b. Teachers were less willing to deliver maximum shock when tthe experimenter gave his orders by telephone
c. Teachers were less willing to deliver maximum shock when the location of the experiment was moved from Yale University to a downtown warehouse
d. All of the above

d. Also, teachers were less likely to deliver maximum shock when an assistant teacher refused to obey the experimenter's orders.

33

This theory predicts that, when an attempt at social influence causes a person to feel a loss of personal freedom, the person may respond by acting in a way that is opposite of what is desired. One study found that members of the potential audience of a censured message reacted to censorship by exhibiting a greater desire to hear the message and by changing their attitudes in the direction of the position advocated by the message:

a. Obedience to authority
b. Basis of social power
c. Autokinetic effect
d. Psychological reactance

d

34

According to the bases of social power, which of the following is true:

a. Reward and coercive power lead to the least superficial response (compliance)
b. Referent power is less likely to produce identification
c. Expert, legitimate, and informational power are most likely to produce internalization
d. The less varied an individual's sources of power, the greater ability he/she has to influence others.

c. Reward and coercive power lead to the most superficial response; Referent power is most likely to produce identification; the more varied an individual's sources of power, the greater ability he/she has to influence others.

35

A communicator's _________________ has been identified as a key contributor to attitude change in the audience.

a. Trustworthiness
b. Credibility
c. Likability
d. Good looks

b. High-credible communicators are more persuasive. The difference between high-and low-credible communicators declines over time, however, as the attitude change produced by a high-credible communicator decreases and the attitude change produced by a low-credible communicator increases (sleeper effect).

36

Under what circumstance would an audience view the communicator as more trustworthy:

a. If they are arguing against their own best interests than if they have something to gain by being persuasive
b. The communicator looks like the majority of the audience
c. The communicator is a white male
d. None of the above

a

37

In general, change in attitude is greatest when the level of discrepancy between the positions of the communication and the recipient is in the ____________ range.

a. Low
b. Moderate
c. High
d. Extremely high

b

38

When both sides of an argument are to be presented, this is likely to occur when the second communication immediately follows the first and the measure of attitude change is taken at a later time:

a. Recency effect
b. Accidental message
c. Autokinetic effect
d. Primacy effect

d

39

When both sides of an argument are to presented, this is likely to occur when there is a period of time between the two communications and the attitude measure is administered immediately after the second communication:

a. Recency effect
b. Accidental message
c. Autokinetic effect
d. Primacy effect

a

40

Which of the following is true regarding accidental messages (messages that are accidentally overheard by the recipient)?

a. They have no impact on attitude change
b. They are less likely than intentional messages to induce attitude change
c. They are more likely than intentional messages to induce attitude change
d. They are only likely to produce attitude change in a recipient who had a similar attitude as the accidental messanger

c

41

Which of the following people would be least susceptible to persuasion?

a. A 22 year old
b. A person with an IQ of 82
c. A confident 30 year old
d. A 54 year old

d. People with lower levels of intelligence, those with either low or high self-esteem, and those in their teens or early 20's tend to be more easily persuaded

42

According to this theory of attitude change, when people have two incompatible cognitions, they experience discomfort which they attempt to relieve using one of several methods:

a. Cognitive Dissonance Theory
b. Balance Theory
c. Elaboration Likelihood Model
d. Social Judgment Theory

a

43

According to this theory of attitude change, relations may be balanced or unbalanced, depending on the pattern of likes and dislikes among the person (P), another person (O), and a third person, idea, event, or object (X):

a. Cognitive Dissonance Theory
b. Balance Theory
c. Elaboration Likelihood Model
d. Social Judgment Theory

b

44

This theory of attitude change proposes that we have three categories of judgment by which we evaluate persuasive messages - a latitude of acceptance, a latitude of non-commitment, and a latitude of rejection. We're most likely to be persuaded when the message is within our latitude of acceptance and, the more ego-involved we are with the topic, the larger the latitude of rejection and the smaller the latitudes of acceptance and non-commitment:

a. Cognitive Dissonance Theory
b. Balance Theory
c. Elaboration Likelihood Model
d. Social Judgment Theory

d

45

This theory of attitude change predicts that persuasion can occur through the central route (which involves systematic processing of the information) and the peripheral route (which relies on mental shortcuts):

a. Cognitive Dissonance Theory
b. Balance Theory
c. Elaboration Likelihood Model
d. Social Judgment Theory

c. While both routes may produce the same amount of attitude change initially, the central route produces change that is more enduring and most resistant to future attempts at persuasion.

46

According to McGuire, what conditions are best for resistance to persuasion:

a. Providing a group/individual with arguments consistent with their own position prior to hearing a persuasive message
b. Providing a group/individual with arguments that opposed their own position along with weak counterarguments against the opposing view prior to hearing a persuasive message
c. Providing a group/individual with entertainment prior to hearing a persuasive message to hearing a persuasive message
d. There are no specific conditions that are best for resistance to persuasion, but the more intelligent the audience, the better they are able to resist persuasion

b

47

Rosenhan's research involving "pseudopatients" who were admitted to psychiatric hospitals:

a. confirmed that participation in a research study alters the behavior of the research participants
b. demonstrated that labeling a person changes a person's behavior
c. showed that the environment influences how a person's behavior is perceived
d. showed that "central traits" have a greater impact than other traits on impression formation

c

48

A student who is chronically depressed is most likely to attribute the low score she received on her final exam to :

a. her lack of ability
b. the lack of time she had to study
c. the difficulty of some exam items
d. the instructor's ineptitude

a

49

The statement, "You tripped, but I was pushed" BEST illustrates which of the following?

a. self-perception bias
b. actor-observer effect
c. fundamental attribution bias
d. self-monitoring

b

50

The tendency to overestimate the role of dispositional factors when inferring the cause of another person's behavior is referred to as the ________________.

a. self-serving bias
b. actor-observer effect
c. fundamental attribution bias
d. self-perception bias

c

51

A problem with relying on the representativeness heuristic when making a judgment about the characteristics of another person is that doing so:

a. causes over-reliance on statistical data
b. doesn't take base rate data into account
c. overestimates the degree to which dispositional factors affect behavior
d. doesn't take into account the limitations of working memory

b. The representativeness heuristic involves basing your judgment about the likelihood that a person, object, or event belongs to a particular category on how similar the person, object, or event is to that category while ignoring base rate data.

52

A friend of yours says, "Every time I plan a vacation, there's always a crisis at home or work so that I can't go." Assuming that this is not really true, your friend's statement best illustrates which of the following?

a. psychological reactance
b. base rate fallacy
c. illusory correlation
d. fundamental attribution bias

c

53

On the basis of his investigation of the relationship between affiliation and anxiety, Shachter concluded that which of the following best accounted for the desire of high-anxiety participants to wait with other high-anxiety participants?

a. demand characteristics
b. evaluation apprehension
c. relief from discomfort
d. social comparison

d

54

Berscheid's emotion-in-relationship model proposes that strong positive emotions are less likely to be elicited during the later stages of an intimate relationship than in its initial stages because:

a. in the later stages, each person is more self-centered and less other-centered
b. in the later stages, each partner's behavior has become more predictable
c. in the later stages, each partner works harder to be sensitive to the other's needs
d. over time, people become "emotionally immune" to the behaviors of others

b

55

Equity theory predicts that a person's satisfaction in a close personal relationship is related to the person's:

a. perceptions of his/her own contribution/reward ratio and the ratio of his/her partner.
b. perceptions of the relative utility of the relationship
c. comparisons between his/her current relationship and past relationships
d. comparisons between his/her own relationship outcomes and the relationship outcomes of others

a

56

Self-verification theory predicts that a husband who has low self-esteem and is overweight and chronically depressed will prefer his wife to:

a. not comment on his abilities, weight, and mood
b. make neutral comments about his abilities, weight, and mood
c. confirm his negative self-evaluations
d. contradict his negative self-evaluations

c

57

As describe by Kobasa et al., the personality characteristic of hardiness is characterized by which of the following?

a. confidence, competence, and control
b. commitment, challenge, and control
c. common sense, commitment, and capability
d. capability, challenge, and commitment

b

58

Sherif used the autokinetic effect to study:

a. the frustration-regression hypothesis
b. psychological reactance
c. conformity to group norms
d. bases of social power

c

59

According to Moscovici, group members espousing the minority position are most likely to change the opinion of the majority when:

a. members supporting the minority position have accumulated "idiosycracy credits"
b. members supporting the minority position are consistent in expressing their opinion without appearing dogmatic
c. the number of people representing the minority is only slightly less than the number of people representing the majority
d. the minority leader is viewed by members of the majority as having legitimate power

b

60

A research study finds that instituting a law that raises the minimum age for puchasing alcohol from 18 to 21 increases underage drinking among college students. This finding is consistent with the prediction of:

a. the inoculation model
b. cognitive dissonance theory
c. psychological reactance theory
d. the deindividuation model

c

61

A supervisor attempts to increase his influence by being sensitive to the needs of his subordinates and by acting as a role model. This supervisor is relying on which of the following bases of power identified by French and Raven?

a. referent
b. legitimate
c. expert
d. charismatic

a

62

According to the theory of planned behavior, the three components of a person's behavioral intention are:

a. attitude toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control
b. degree of liking or attraction, beliefs, and action tendencies
c. level of ability, degree of motivation, and extent of behavioral control
d. attitudinal strength, social desirability, and perceived self-efficacy

a

63

When a communicator is mildly to moderately credible, attitude change is greatest when the level of discrepancy between the initial positions of the communicator and the recipient of the communication is:

a. small
b. moderate
c. large
d. unpredictable

b

64

Aronson and Mills examined the effects of severity of initiation into a group on subsequent attitudes toward the group. Results of their study indicated that, compared to women who underwent a mild initiation, women who underwent a severe initiation as a precondition of group membership:

a. rated the group as less interesting and enjoyable
b. rated the group as more interesting and enjoyable
c. were more likely to drop out of the group
d. were more likely to dislike fellow group members

b

65

According the the elaboration likelihood model, a person is most likely to rely on the "central route" for processing information when:

a. he thinks the messsage is boring
b. everyone else in the group agrees with the message
c. the message is within his "latitude of accpetance."
d. he is in a neutral or slightly negative mood

d

66

Sherif's social judgment theory predicts that a person's "latitude of rejection" is largest when the person:

a. has high ego-involvement with the target issue
b. has an external locus of control
c. is unfamiliar with the target issue
d. is in a good mood

a

67

To "inoculate" someone against a persuasive message, you would:

a. warn the person that she is about to hear a message designed to change her beliefs
b. provide the person with information that supports her current beliefs
c. provide the person with strong arguments against her beliefs
d. provide the person with arguments against her beliefs and weak refutations of those arguments

d

68

According to Berkowitiz's verson of the frustration-aggression hypothesis, frustration leads to aggression in the presence of _________________.

aggressive cues

69

Research on social learning theory found that a child is more likely to imitate an aggressive model when the model is powerful, successful, liked, and/or __________________; is of the same gender; and is _________ for acting aggressively

familiar; rewarded

70

Overall, studies on media violence suggest that viewing violence ______________ viewer aggression. The research has also shown that exposure to violent pornography increases aggressive behaviors toward women and increases acceptance of _________ and the adoption of callous attitudes toward sexual violence.

Increases; rape myths

71

Zimbardo's ____________ model predicts that people are more likely to act aggressively when they can act ___________________; and his prison study demonstrated the impact of ______________ on aggression and other behaviors.

deindividuation; anonymously; social roles

72

The research has linked prejudice to several factors including a(n) ____________ personality and ________ cause by competition over power and limited resources.

authoritarian, intergroup conflict

73

Sherif's Robber's Cave study demonstrated that cooperation between hostile groups is decreased when group members work to achieve a ____________ goal. This was also demonstrated by Aronson and his colleagues who applied the _________ method to a fifth grade classrom. Results of their study indicated that this method not only reduces ethnic ___________ but also enhances students' self-esteem and attitudes toward school.

superordinate; jigsaw; stereotypes

74

Research on bystander intervention has found that a bystander is more likely to intervene when he/she is ________, when the bystander feels a sense of _______ for the victim, and when the emergency situation is ____________.

alone; responsibility; non-ambiguous

75

This theory proposes that every psychological event depends on the state of the person and at the same time on the environment, although their relative importance is different in different cases:

a. Social learning theory
b. Social judgment theory
c. Field theory
d. Equity theory

c

76

According to Lewin, the ______________ conflict occurs when we must choose between two equally positive or attractive goals and is usually the easiest to resolve. An ___________________ conflict occurs when we must choose between two equally negative or unattractive goals, is difficult to resolve, and can lead to indecision, inaction, or removing oneself from the situation. An ___________ conflict occurs when a single goal has both positive and negative qualitites. A ____________ conflict occurs when we have to choose between two goals that both have positive and negative qualities and is usually the most difficult conflict to resolve.

approach-approach; avoidance-avoidance; approach-avoidance; double approach-avoidance

77

This proposes that memory tends to be better for uncompleted tasks than for completed tasks because uncompleted tasks create greater "psychic tension." Research has also suggested that it is most likely to occur in non-stressful conditions:

a. Jigsaw method
b. Psychological reactance
c. Zeigarnik effect
d. Barnum effect

c

78

Crowding is most likely to affect performance on __________ tasks.

complex

79

According to the density intensity hypothesis, the different effects of crowding are due to the fact that crowding _______ positive expierences and makes unpleasant experiences ___________ unpleasant.

enhances; more

80

The effects of crowding are moderated by the amount of ______ an individual requires. In general, men require _____ personal space than women and tend to act more _________________ than women in crowded situations.

personal space; more; aggressively

81

Berkowitz revised the original frustration-aggression hypothesis by proposing that frustration leads to aggression when:

a. acting aggressively is likely to produce desirable outcomes
b. there are aggressive cues in the environment
c. the aggressor has an internal locus of control
d. the target of the aggression is of lower-status than the aggressor

b

82

The research suggests that people who frequently view TV shows that depict violent acts:

a. tend to overestimate the chance that they will be the victims of violence
b. tend to underestimate the chance that they will be the victims of violence
c. tend to overestimate the chance that they will be perpetrators of violence
d. are no different than those who do not view violent shows when estimating the chance they will be the victims or perpetrators of violence

a

83

Milgram found that participants in his study were more willing to administer electric shocks to another person when they couldn't see the victim and the victim couldn't see them. This finding is predicted by Zimbardo's notion of:

a. deindividuation
b. pluralistic ignorance
c. self-verification
d. psychological reactance

a

84

___________racism is occurring when members of minority groups consistently have less access than members of the majority group to quality education, good jobs, appropriate medical care, and adequate housing.

a. Cultural
b. Symbolic
c. Institutional
d. Internalized

c

85

A national survey finds that, while most people are in favor of integration in the workplace, the majority also oppose affirmative action. This finding is best explained by which of the following?

a. the illusory correlation
b. the contact hypothesis
c. symbolic racism thoery
d. realistic group conflict theory

c One of the characteristics of symbolic racists is a tendency to support equality as an abstract principle while opposing concrete methods for achieving it

86

To decrease hostility between groups of junior high school students, you would be best advised to:

a. increase opportunities for contact under pleasant conditions
b. have a respected member of the community speak to the students about the benefits of cooperation
c. have each group select a representative to discuss ways to reduce hostility
d. assign the students goals that can be achieved only through intergroup cooperation

d

87

Research investigating the effects of the jigsaw method in the classroom demonstrated that it:

a. increases aggression, especially toward the provocateur
b. reduces ethnic stereotyping
c. increases intergroup competition
d. increases cooperation but reduces academic achievement

b

88

A person is most likely to be helped in an emergency situation when:

a. there is a single bystander
b. there are several bystanders
c. there are several bystanders of the same gender
d. there are several bystanders of the opposite gender

a

89

Kurt Lewin's field theory predicts that human behavior is:

a. due more to environmental factors than to psychological factors
b. due more to biological factors than to environmental factors
c. a function of both the person's own attributes and the characteristics of the environment
d. a function of the microsystem, mesosystem, and macrosystem

c

90

When faced with an approach-avoidance conflict:

a. the closer we get to the goal, the stronger our desire to approach it
b. the closer we get to the goal, the stronger our desire to avoid it
c. regardless of our proximity to the goal, the desire to approach the goal is equal to the desire to avoid it
d. the strength of our desires to approach and to avoid the goal are unaffected by our proximity to it

b

91

The basic premise of the Zeigarnik effect is that:

a. we tend to remember unfinished tasks better than finished ones
b. we tend to remember finished tasks better than unfinished ones
c. we tend to remember difficult tasks better than easy ones
d. we tend to remember easy tasks better than difficult ones

a

92

With regard to the effects of crowding, which of the following is true?

a. Men are more likely than women to act aggressively in crowded conditions
b. Men are less likely than women to be stressed by crowded conditions
c. Men and women are equally likely to react negatively to crowded conditions
d. Men and women react aggressively to crowded conditions to about the same degree but manifest their aggression in different ways

a