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Psychology 101 > Social Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social Psychology Deck (59):
1

social psychology

the scientific study of how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others

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social influence

the process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual

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conformity

changing one's own behavior to match that of other people

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groupthink

kind of thinking that occurs when people place importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned

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consumer psychology

branch of psychology that studies the habits of consumers in the marketplace

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compliance

changing one's behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change

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foot-in-the-door technique

asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment

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door-in-the-face technique

asking for a large commitment and being refused and then asking for a smaller commitment

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norm of reciprocity

assumption that if someone does something for a person, that person should do something for the other in return

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lowball technique

getting a commitment from a person then raising the cost of that commitment

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that's-not-all technique

a sales technique in which the persuader makes an offer then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the target person can make a decision

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obedience

changing one's behavior at the command of an authority figure

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norm of reciprocity

if someone does something for a person, the person should do something in return

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group polarization

the tendency for members involved in a group discussion to take somewhat more extreme positions and suggest riskier actions when compared to individuals who have not participated in a group discussion

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social facilitation

the tendency for the presence of other people to have a positive impact on the performance of an easy task

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social impairment

the tendency for the presence of other people to have a negative impact on the performance of a difficult task

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social loafing

the tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with others on that task

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attitude

a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation

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affective component

the way a person feels toward the object (emotional), poor predictors of behavior unless this is very strong/specific

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behavior component

the action that a person takes in regard to the person, object, or situation

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cognitive component

the way a person thinks about himself, an object, or a situation

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milgram study

"teacher" administered what they thought were real shocks to the "learner"

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characteristics of groupthink

invulnerability, rationalization, lack of introspection, stereotyping, pressure, lack of disagreement, self-deception, insularity

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vicarious conditioning

watching the actions and reactions of others to ideas, people, objects, and situations.

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Persuasion

the process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation.

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elaboration likelihood model

model of persuasion stating that people will either elaborate on the persuasive message or fail to elaborate on it and that the future actions of those who do elaborate are more predictable than those who do not

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central-route processing

type of information processing that involves attending to the content of the message itself

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peripheral-route processing

type of information processing that involves attending to factors not involved in the message, such as the appearance of the source of the message, the length of the message, and other noncontent factors

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cognitive dissonance

sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person's behavior does not correspond to that person's attitudes

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social cognition

the mental processes that people use to make sense of the social world around them

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impression formation

forming of the first knowledge that a person has concerning another person

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social categorization

the assignment of a person one has just met to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the past

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stereotype

a set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category

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implicit personality theory

sets of assumptions about how different types of people, personality traits, and actions are related to each other

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Schemas

-mental patterns that represent what a person believes about certain types of people. Schemas can become stereotypes

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attribution

the process of explaining one's own behavior and the behavior of others

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attribution theory

the theory of how people make attributions

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situational cause

cause of behavior attributed to external factors, suchas delays. the actions of others, or some other aspect of the situation

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dispositional cause

cause of behavior attributed to internal factors such as personality or character

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fundamental attribution error

the tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors in determining behavior while underestimating situational factors

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prejudice

negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group

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discrimination

treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong

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in-groups

social groups with whom a person identifies; "us

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out-groups

social groups with whom a person does not identify; "them"

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realistic conflict theory

theory stating that prejudice and discrimination will be increased between groups that are in conflict over a limited resource

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social cognitive theory

referring to the use of cognitive processes in relation to understanding the social world

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social identity theory

theory in which the formation of a person's identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison

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social identity

part of the self-concept including one's view of self as a member of a particular social category

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social comparison

the comparison of oneself to others in ways that raise one's self-esteem

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stereotype vulnerability

the effect that people's awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior

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self-fulfilling prophecy

the tendency of one's expectations to affect one's behavior in such a way as to make the expectations more likely to occur

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equal status contact

contact between groups in which the groups have equal status with neither group having power over the other

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interpersonal attraction

linking or having the desire for a relationship with another person

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reciprocity of liking

the tendency of people to like other people who like them in return

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social role

pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position

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prosocial behavior

socially desirable behavior that benefits others

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altruism

prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself

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diffusion of responsibility

occurring when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility

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bystander effect

referring to the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not to help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases