Social Studies 8, Test, Civil War and Reconstruction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Social Studies 8, Test, Civil War and Reconstruction Deck (27):

Who was Andrew Johnson?

-Lincoln'S vice President
-Went into office after Lincoln's assassination
-Extremely racist Democrat
-Impeached but not convicted


Who was Ulysses S. Grant?

-Ended as general for the North for most of the Civil War
-Later became President during the most critical part of Reconstruction
-Vetoed 2nd National Bank
-His government was known as the spoils system


Who was Rutherford B. Hayes?

-There was a lot of corruption when he was running for President so they were unsure who won
-Hayes became President in exchange for a Transcontinental Railroad, remove all federal troops from the South which ended reconstruction, money to industrialize the South, and appoint a Democrat to an important place in the Cabinet.


What were the Reconstruction Amendments and what did they do?

-13th - freed all slaves
-14th - granted citizen rights and equal protection under he law to freed slaves
-15th - granted all men the right to vote regardless of race


What Political Power did the Freedman have?

-At first, Freedman had political power when they were being supervised by the military. Quite a few Freedman voted and 1500 black men held a position in office in the South
-When the White Leaguers used violence and intimidation to stop blacks from voting


What did the Freeman's Bureau do?

-The Freeman's Bureau was meant to help freed slaves get jobs and stuff and give them education and medical care


What were Carpetbaggers and Scalawags?

Generals term for Northerners that came South between 1867 and 1877
Some wanted to reform or change the South
Took advantage of Reconstruction to gain wealth and political power
Many Southerners believed they were supported by Grant

Southerners who supported the Union during the Civil War or who supported Reconstruction
Supported rights of Freedmen
Allied with Carpetbaggers
Seen by many as opportunistic, exploitative, and corrupt


What was Sharecropping?

-Former slaves would work and live on a landowners land in exchange of keeping part of the crop (mostly cotton)
-The slaves were always in debt and they were basically slaves again because of they were treated


What was Industrialization in the South?

-You get more factories and the steel production went up but wasn't as much as the Northern Production


Who were the K.K.K.?

-White people who were against the rights of black people and carpetbaggers and they thought they were rescuing the South


How did Reconstruction end?

-The Compromise of 1877 was when Samuel Tilden (South) agreed to give up in being President to end Reconstruction
-Rutherford B. Hayes became President in exchange for a Transcontinental Railroad, remove all federal troops from the South which ended reconstruction, money to industrialize the South, and appoint a Democrat to an important place in the Cabinet.


What was the "Solid South"?

-Refers to the fact that all the states would always vote for Democratic people in Federal Elections


What was the Impeachment of Andrew Johnson?

-Andrew Johnson was impeached because he kept vetoing everything passed for Congressional Reconstruction. The Crime was violating the Tenure of Office Act.
-The tenure of Office Act said that the President can't fire members of his cabinet without people from Congress Appooving


What were the Redeemer Governments?

-Governments were trying to bring the South back to what it used to be


What were Lincoln's Goals?

-Lincoln wanted to re-assemble the Union to unite as one country
-Also wanted to end Reconstruction


What were the Differences in Plans for Reconstruction?

-Lincoln's Plan was to run 10% of states population had to swear loyalty in order to re-enter the Union. He wanted to bring the Union back together as fast as possible and protect the former slaves (freedman). His main goal was to reunite the Union and America
-Johnson's Plan was racist and was against having rights for former slaves. Johnson also believed that the re-admission of states should be easy and it should be easy to rejoin the Union


What was the Anaconda Plan?

-The North had a plan to encircle the South in the Civil War
-The North also blockaded all their ports


What was the Draft and Draft Riots?

-The Draft was when the government picks from a lottery of adults to fight in the war. You could either find a substitute or pay your way out of war. They got mad at the rich who paid there way out and the black were also being targeted because they were thought to be the cause of the war. Many rich peoples houses were burned down.


What was/happened in the Battle of Gettysburg?

-Considered the turning point of the War for the North. This was because it was the furthest north the South had penetrated and it ruined General Lee's Plan to attack Washington D.C. From thee North. Also the last time one of the Confederate Armies would penetrate or invade the North. Also the bloodiest battle of the war.


What was the Nullification Crisis?

-There was a tariff that the North liked that the South didn't because it would benefit the North and not the South. South Carolina voted not to pay the tariff.


What is Popular Sovernigthy?

-Majority rules. In new territories, The people in the new territories were able to vote for if they wanted to be a slave or free state.


What happenned in Sherman's March of the Sea?

-In 1894, there was a famous event know as the "March of the sea." Sherman marched from Chattanooga Tennessee to Savannah Georgia on the coast. He went behind enemy lines and essentially stole his food supply as he went. This was total destruction of what the came across. They burned everything they passed. "Total War" Means destroying anything they come across. Also, they were freeing slaves. Then burned many cotton fields which eventually destroyed the economy. They were attacking the confederate army from both sides. The Final Campaign was when Ulesses S Grant was marching further into Virginia and won many battles. The South eventually surrenders at Appomattox court house.
-The North, over the course of the war, had 23% dead. The South had 24% dead.
-Civil war had double the amount of total casualties.
-Inflation in the south 10x the amount in 1860.


Who was Abraham Lincoln?

-President during the Civil War
-Shot after the War
-Came up with a plan to free all slaves


What is Sectionalism between the North and South?

-South wanted to keep slaves and believed it was good for the economy. Also believed that State Governments should have more power than the Federal Government
-North believed that slaves should be freed because it was Un-Constitutional. Also believed that the Federal Government should have more power than the State Governments


What is the Emancipation Proclamation?

-An order declaring that all slaves in the 10 rebellious Confederate States were freed but not given citizenship
-Showed how one of the Northerners' goals were to end slavery


What were the main causes of the Civil War?

-The Civil Rights Bill and Civil Rights in general


What was the Colfax Massacre, how did it affect the U.S., and what was the decision?

-The Events
The White Leaguers raided a courthouse by physically dragging the blacks outside the courthouse
The Blacks surrendered but there was a bit of a skirmish and some shooting took place
100 blacks died and only 3 whites died!

-The Defendants
Members of the white mob that were convicted
Charged under Enforcement Act of 1870
16 counts of violating Freedman's rights
Appealed their convictions

-The Decision
Convictions were overturned
Based on the idea that Constitution and amendments can't grant rights
Only state laws can actually grant rights
Freedman's Rights can't be violated iff they don't have any
14th Amendment only applies to State Laws
White Democrats were individuals so it doesn't apply