Social Studies/Egypt Chapter 4-6 Test Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Social Studies/Egypt Chapter 4-6 Test Review Deck (42):
1

papyrus

Egyptian paper

2

cartouche

oval shaped braided ring that had the Pharoah's real name on it

3

hieroglyphic

Greek word that means "sacred carved writing." Egyptian picture writing.

4

Rosetta stone

a stone carved in 196BCE to commemorate the coronation of Memphis of Ptolemy V- a Greek Pharoah. It contained a message that was chiseled in Greek, hieroglyphic and demotic. By making a connection between these different writings, Jean Champollion was able to break the code of hieroglyphics

5

matabas

flat mud-brick tombs in which pharaohs were buried

6

shawabti

the word means "answerer"
small mummy shaped figures that were tucked between the layers of linen that were used to make a mummy. Egyptians thought they would magically come to life to serve the dead pharoah

7

Book of the Dead

A papyrus scroll that contained the same magic formulas as earlier pyramid texts that was placed in the sarcophagus

8

sarcophagus

a huge stone coffin in which the nest of coffins containing the mummy was placed

9

natron

a mineral similar to salt that lined dry lake beds in the western desert. They used this to preserve bodies to make them into mummies

10

pictographs

picture writing used by Egyptians

11

eye of Horus

the symbol for good or restored health. When Seth cut out Horus's eye- it was magically restored by the god Thoth

12

amulets

small statues of gods

13

wadis

dried lake beds in the western desert where you could find natron

14

volumen

several sheets of papyrus that were glued together and rolled up. the Romans used this term and it describes the first books.

15

deteminative

a mark made next to a writing symbol to indicate which meaning of a word was intended

16

rebuses

picture puzzles

17

Ra

the sun god. He created air and moisture. The most important deity to ancient Egyptians. The myth of Ra explains the miracle of rebirth.

18

Osiris

god of the dead or the god of the underworld. He is killed by his step brother (Seth) and is saved by his wife (Isis). When a pharaoh dies, his soul becomes one with Osiris.

19

Isis

the goddess of the harvest. The wife of Osiris. She brought Osiris back to life after Seth killed him.

20

Horus

the son of Osiris and Isis. a sky god closely linked to the king. His eye was cut out by Seth and replaced magically by the god Thoth. His eye is a symbol for good or restored health. The falcon or hawk is a symbol that represents him

21

Ma'at

a state of perfect harmony. A goddess that represents order and no chaos

22

Aten

the one and only god as declared by Amenhotep. He was the creative force of the universe. He is represented by a sun with rays.

23

Anubis

protector of the dead. God of the mummies. He is symbolized by a jackal.

24

Hapi

god of fertile soil and water.

25

Seth

god of violence. Enemy of Osiris and Isis. He tried to kill Osiris. He cut out Horus eye. He was banished from the fertile valley and forced to live in the desert

26

Geb

god of the Earth

27

Nut

sky godess

28

Amon

the sun god of Thebes. Tutankhamon replaced Aten with Amon

29

The Egyptians were innovative, so why did the Phoenicians become first to develop the true alphabet

They did not want to eliminate any of the word pictures that generations of writers had used before them

30

What was the most important purpose of papyrus

It was used to write on. The world's first paper

31

Why were scribes so important to Egyptian society

The government always needed someone to record its transactions. Only 2% of the population could read and write

32

What 3 important cycles di Egyptians observe in nature

Life, Death and rebirth.
This could be seen through:
the pattern of light and darkness
the annual cycle of crops that grew in the flood plain
the flooding of the Nile

33

What are Ka and Ba

Egyptians believed that everyone had a ba (a soul) and a ka (an invisible twin of himself). At death, the ka and ba were released from the body.The dead body had to be preserved so that the ka could live in it. The ba was shown as a bird that could fly free

34

What was important about the heart to ancient Egyptians

they believed that the heart was the source of all thought and emotion. It was the most important organ.

35

What was the purpose of the Canopic Jars

they held the organs of the mummy: the intestines, lungs, stomach and liver. the organs were preserved in the jars so that the could be reunited with the body in the Afterlife.

36

How were the organs prepared for a mummy?

The organs were removed and dried in natron. They were wrapped in strips of linen and placed in the ceramic jars

37

What was on top of the 4 Canopic jars and who did they represent

They represented the 4 sons of Horus:
Qebsenuef- falcon
Hapi- baboon
Duamutef- jackal
Imseti- human

38

What was the main purpose for embalming (It wasn't just to preserve the bodies. WHY did they want to preserve the bodies)

The Egyptian thought that once a person was buried they could have a second life in the Land of the Dead. They thought the ka could not survive without an intact body

38

What was placed in graves and why?

Food and tools were placed in the grave so they would have food and equiptment in the next life.

38

What was placed in graves and why

The canopic jars and objects that might be needed in the afterlife- furniture, tools, weapons, and jewelry. They also put statues of the dead person in the tomb

39

What was the function of the mortuary temple?

So the dead preson's realitives could make offerings to them.

39

What was the function of the mortuary temple

It was the place where subjects of the pharaoh and family members could bring offerings of food