Flashcards in Social Studies/Egypt Chapter 4-6 Test Review Deck (42):
oval shaped braided ring that had the Pharoah's real name on it
Greek word that means "sacred carved writing." Egyptian picture writing.
a stone carved in 196BCE to commemorate the coronation of Memphis of Ptolemy V- a Greek Pharoah. It contained a message that was chiseled in Greek, hieroglyphic and demotic. By making a connection between these different writings, Jean Champollion was able to break the code of hieroglyphics
flat mud-brick tombs in which pharaohs were buried
the word means "answerer"
small mummy shaped figures that were tucked between the layers of linen that were used to make a mummy. Egyptians thought they would magically come to life to serve the dead pharoah
Book of the Dead
A papyrus scroll that contained the same magic formulas as earlier pyramid texts that was placed in the sarcophagus
a huge stone coffin in which the nest of coffins containing the mummy was placed
a mineral similar to salt that lined dry lake beds in the western desert. They used this to preserve bodies to make them into mummies
picture writing used by Egyptians
eye of Horus
the symbol for good or restored health. When Seth cut out Horus's eye- it was magically restored by the god Thoth
small statues of gods
dried lake beds in the western desert where you could find natron
several sheets of papyrus that were glued together and rolled up. the Romans used this term and it describes the first books.
a mark made next to a writing symbol to indicate which meaning of a word was intended
the sun god. He created air and moisture. The most important deity to ancient Egyptians. The myth of Ra explains the miracle of rebirth.
god of the dead or the god of the underworld. He is killed by his step brother (Seth) and is saved by his wife (Isis). When a pharaoh dies, his soul becomes one with Osiris.
the goddess of the harvest. The wife of Osiris. She brought Osiris back to life after Seth killed him.
the son of Osiris and Isis. a sky god closely linked to the king. His eye was cut out by Seth and replaced magically by the god Thoth. His eye is a symbol for good or restored health. The falcon or hawk is a symbol that represents him
a state of perfect harmony. A goddess that represents order and no chaos
the one and only god as declared by Amenhotep. He was the creative force of the universe. He is represented by a sun with rays.
protector of the dead. God of the mummies. He is symbolized by a jackal.
god of fertile soil and water.
god of violence. Enemy of Osiris and Isis. He tried to kill Osiris. He cut out Horus eye. He was banished from the fertile valley and forced to live in the desert
god of the Earth
the sun god of Thebes. Tutankhamon replaced Aten with Amon
The Egyptians were innovative, so why did the Phoenicians become first to develop the true alphabet
They did not want to eliminate any of the word pictures that generations of writers had used before them
What was the most important purpose of papyrus
It was used to write on. The world's first paper
Why were scribes so important to Egyptian society
The government always needed someone to record its transactions. Only 2% of the population could read and write
What 3 important cycles di Egyptians observe in nature
Life, Death and rebirth.
This could be seen through:
the pattern of light and darkness
the annual cycle of crops that grew in the flood plain
the flooding of the Nile
What are Ka and Ba
Egyptians believed that everyone had a ba (a soul) and a ka (an invisible twin of himself). At death, the ka and ba were released from the body.The dead body had to be preserved so that the ka could live in it. The ba was shown as a bird that could fly free
What was important about the heart to ancient Egyptians
they believed that the heart was the source of all thought and emotion. It was the most important organ.
What was the purpose of the Canopic Jars
they held the organs of the mummy: the intestines, lungs, stomach and liver. the organs were preserved in the jars so that the could be reunited with the body in the Afterlife.
How were the organs prepared for a mummy?
The organs were removed and dried in natron. They were wrapped in strips of linen and placed in the ceramic jars
What was on top of the 4 Canopic jars and who did they represent
They represented the 4 sons of Horus:
What was the main purpose for embalming (It wasn't just to preserve the bodies. WHY did they want to preserve the bodies)
The Egyptian thought that once a person was buried they could have a second life in the Land of the Dead. They thought the ka could not survive without an intact body
What was placed in graves and why?
Food and tools were placed in the grave so they would have food and equiptment in the next life.
What was placed in graves and why
The canopic jars and objects that might be needed in the afterlife- furniture, tools, weapons, and jewelry. They also put statues of the dead person in the tomb
What was the function of the mortuary temple?
So the dead preson's realitives could make offerings to them.