Social Studies: Lesson 4: The Story of Ancient Egypt Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Social Studies: Lesson 4: The Story of Ancient Egypt Deck (18):
1

cuneiform

Sumerian writing that means "wedge-shaped"

2

pictographs

picture writing

3

rebuses

picture puzzles.

4

determinatives

a mark made next to a writing symbol to indicate which meaning of a word was intended.

5

hieroglyph

Greek word that means "sacred carved writing"

6

volumen

scrolls from papyrus that became the world's first books (our word "volume" comes from this word)

7

The Egyptians represented abstract ideas such as love and happiness by drawing picture puzzles called what

rebuses

8

How did the early Egyptians select their writing symbols, and what were 5 early Egyptians "letters"

they selected symbols from the natural environment. "letters" included pictures of owls, quail chicks, water, parts of the human body, vultures, reeds, knotted ropes, loaves of bread and feathers

9

What happened when a symbol had more than one meaning

They drew a mark called a determinative to indicate which meaning was intended

10

the Egyptians were very innovative, so why did the Phoenicians become the 1st to develop the worlds true alphabet?

They never eliminated any word pictures when new ones were developed so their writing system was too difficult

11

How are hieroglyphs read?

They are read from right to left or left to right.
If the pictures face left,read from the left.
If they face right, read from the right.
They can also be read in columns

12

what is a cartouche

It was an oval braid rope in which the symbols representing the name of a pharaoh were enclosed

13

Why did the scribes have such comfortable lives?

Only 2% of the population could read or write.
So, they enjoyed great power and job security, since the government always needed someone to record its transactions.
They did not have to pay taxes

14

How did scribe make his pen?

A scribe made a rush pen from a papyrus reed by chewing on the end of the rush until the fibers were broken and could be shaped into a fine point

15

How were colored inks made?

Black ink was made from soot, ground plants and water. Red ink was made from the red mineral ochre. Other colors came from different ground-up minerals.

16

What was the Rosetta Stone and why was it important

It was a stone carved in 196 BCE to commemorate the coronation in Memphis of Ptolemy V, a Greek pharaoh.
It contained a message that was chiseled in Greek, hieroglyphic, and demotic (a type of writing used in legal documents).
By making a connection between the different types of writing, French scholar Jean Francois Champollion was able to break the code of hieroglyphics and understand the writing

17

Why was it important to decode the hieroglyphics

Scholars could begin to translate the writings in tombs, temples, monuments, and papyrus scrolls

18

How did the Egyptians make papyrus

They cut reeds and removed the outer covering, leaving a soft inner pith that was cut into thin strips.
The strips were laid cross-wise in alternating layers on a large stone.
Then a cloth was placed on top of the strips and the surface was pounded with a wooden mallet.
When the cloth was removed, the papyrus was placed in the hot sun to dry.