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Flashcards in Sociality - Kinship Deck (15):

What are the 2 sections of kinship theory

1. Inclusive fitness and relatedness

2. Family dynamics


Define relatedness

Probability that individuals share copies of alleles inherited from a common ancestor


Define inclusive fitness

Measure of total fitness based on the number of offspring and the contribution made to the reproductive success of relatives


What is Hamilton’s rule

R= relatedness
B= benefit
C= cost
Decision to help is based on how related you are and if the benefits outweigh the costs


What are the 3 aspects of family dynamics

1. Family grouping is unstable when there are reproductive opportunities elsewhere

2. Families with high quality resources are more stable

3. Cooperative breeding is stronger when between close relatives


Give an example of cooperative breeding and family dynamics

Eggs laid by queen produce a pheremone
Worker bees destroy worker laid eggs as they are less related to them than queen laid eggs


Give 2 examples of conflict with families

1. Parent offspring conflict
2. Sibling rivalry


What is parent offspring conflict

How much aid is given to a particular offspring

Can cause a zone of conflict - each sibling is equally important to parents inclusive fitness. How much parent gives to offspring and how much offspring want may be different


Give an example of parent offspring conflict


Greater conflict in polyandrous mating societies - all offspring have different genetic relatedness
Natural selection favours offspring that take more parental assistance


What is sibling rivalry

Aggression towards siblings

Greater when there are fewer resources as more related to self than a sibling


Give an example of sibling rivalry


Competition for food
Age related dominance hierarchy
Larger the chick, better position in nest and more food


What are 2 models of kin recognition

1. Matching model

2. Rule of thumb model


What is the matching model

See if an individual is kin by assessing their internal template

Use chemical and behavioural cues e.g tadpoles prefer associating with kin

Use MHC - use odor to determine kin


What is the rule of thumb model

If an animal lives in the same territory or nest treat it as kin


What is a problem with the rule of thumb model

Nest parasites

E.g cuckoos lay eggs in other birds nest and bird then raises it as its own