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Linguistics 112 > Sociolinguistics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sociolinguistics Deck (29):
1

Define sociolinguistics

The study of language in relation to its social context

Started in 1960s / 1970s

2

William Labov

Department store study (1972)

"Social Stratification of /r/"

Goal was to investigate influence socioeconomic class has in dialect

Took place in Saks, Macy's and S. Klein

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What does sociolinguistics focus on?

Focuses on variables like social class, gender, social groups, ethnicity etc.

Functioning of language

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Speech Community

People in the same group who share a variety or dialect

Eg. Saskatchewan, an area of town etc.

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Major types of language variation

Regional, social and ethnic

Types can be interrelated

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Macro-level analysis

Large social groups

National languages, regional dialects, sociolects, ethnolects

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Micro-level analysis

Small social groups

Schools, churches, friend groups etc.

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National language

Language(s) that represent the identity of the speakers within a nation

National languages are always official

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Official language

Language(s) that are used for official governmental purposes & schools

Official languages aren't always national

10

Transnational languages

Languages spoken in multiple countries

Caused by colonization, migration etc.

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Variables that cause changes in languages

Geography

Political status

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What is a language variety

Different versions of the same language

Eg. American English, Canadian English, British English etc.

13

Standard language variety

Taught in schools, promoted by government, used by mass media etc.

Regional dialect of national capitals

14

Vernaculars

Language varieties that have no prestige in society

Not codafied, substandard

Eg. Ethnolects, local dialects, low class sociolects

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Canadian raising

Best know unique feature of Canadian English

Dipthongs begin higher than in other varieties of English

16

Back vowel merger

Phonological characteristic of Canadian English

Vowel in cot, caught, and cart all the same vowel

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/u/ Fronting

Found in prairies

Eg. Fronted /u/ in moon, Saskatoon etc.

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Syntactic features of Canadian English

"As well" sentence initial

Participial form as main verb

Canada as post nominal modifier

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Intra-Speaker Variation

Variation within speech of an individual

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Inter-speaker variation

Variation across a group of speakers

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Dialect

Language variety that has differences on more than one linguistic level compared to other varieties of the same language

Spoken by identifiable groups

Eg. Newfoundland dialect, Saskatchewan dialect

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Regional dialect

Language differences across regions within one country

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Social dialect

Language differences across social groups

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Accents

Only difference in on a phonological level

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Difference between accent and dialect

Accents have only phonological differences

Dialects have phonological, lexical and syntactic differences

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Characteristics of Michif language

Mix between Metis French and Cree (Algonquian)

Made by descendants of French fur traders and Cree women

Considered an ethnolect

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Identifying a social class

Factors: education, professional training, occupation, blue/white collar work, salary, gender, race, ethnicity, age, residential area etc.

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Common divisions of social class

Lower, middle and upper class

Additional divisions: lower-middle class, upper-middle class, etc.

29

Define sociolect

Dialect spoken by a social class, or social group