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Flashcards in Sociology Deck (28):
1

Sociology

Scientific study of social structure and social interaction and factors that change them

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Scientific method

Objective and judicious approach to empirical evidence, no personal opinions, evidence before making conclusion

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Social interaction

Acts people perform toward one another and responses they give in return

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Functions

Actions that have positive consequences

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Dysfunctions

Actions that have negative consequences for society

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Values

Preference people share about what is good or bad

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Norms

Specific expectations about how people behave in given situations

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Taboos

Norma about matters that are so serious as to be almost beyond comprehension

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Ethnocentrism

Belief that one’s own culture is superior to all others

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GST

Profound change in social relationship from communal to associational brought about by industrialization, urbanization, bureaucratization, rationalization, and globalization

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Agents of socialization

Individuals, groups, organizations, and institutions that provide substantial amounts of socialization during life course

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Self

Perception of being a distinct personality with unique identity

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Looking glass self

Process trough which people imaginatively assume the reactions of people

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Total Institution

Setting in which people are isolated from rest of society and controlled by administrative staff

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Sociological imagination

- C. Wright Mills
Intellectual ability to discern relationship between individual experience and social forces in larger society

1. structure of society
2. human history
3. what is happening to variety of people

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Catalysts for change

- war and revolution
- population
- natural catastrophes

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Ethics and research

- prevent physical and emotional harm
- violation of privacy
- anonymity
- wish to quit
- researcher’s institutional affiliation
- purpose of research
- approval by committee

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Functionalist perspective

- Emile Durkheim
- society works like living organism
- Economy, politics, family, education, religion, medicine has to work well to keep society alive
- society maintains itself in equilibrium
- external (war) and internal (industrialization) circumstances which cause balance to falter
- societal cohesion derived from consensus and values
- latent (unintended) and manifest functions

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Conflict perspective

- society as collection of parts held together by social power
- conflicts lead to social change
- conflict produce cohesion

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Symbolic interaction perspective

- individuals construct nature of social world through social interaction
- communications only possible trough symbols
- how we define situation
- general consensus about definitions
- we respond to symbolic meaning rather than to „real“ world

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Culture

- mutually shared products, knowledge, and beliefs of a society
- includes all aspects of life
- material culture (physical objects to accomplish goals)
- nonmaterial culture (values, norms, art, worldviews)

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Ascribed status

Status assigned to people whether they wish or not

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Achieved status

Status over which people can exert at least some control

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Bureaucracy

Form of organization based on explicit rules, with clear, impersonal, and hierarchical authority structure

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Cultural relativism

Belief that each culture is unique and must be analyzed and judged in its own terms

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Deterrence

Use if punishment to discourage crime

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Labeling

Process through which a definition is attached to an individual

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External social controls

Police, peer group = monitors our behavior and rewards us for compliance and punished for noncompliance