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Flashcards in Sodium. Deck (18):
1

What is hypernatraemia?

na over 145

2

What is hyponatraemia?

na under 135

3

What are the different categories of hypernatraemia?

low volume and normal volume

4

What might cause low volume hypernatraemia?

hypovolaemia
severe diarrhoea
high salt diet
sea water ingestion
given sodium bicarb
too much saline
burns
HHS

5

What might cause normal volume hypernatraemia?

diabetes insipidus.

6

How does hypernatraemia present?

thirst
n and v
confusion

7

What is severe hypernatraemia?

over 170

8

What can happen if we lower Na too quickly?

central pontine demyelination

9

What does a higher serum osmolality than urine osmolality imply?

diabetes insipidus

10

What does a higher urine osmolality than serum osmolality imply?

osmotic diuresis

11

How do we treat hypernatraemia?

Stop ongoing losses
Correct water deficit
Correct sodium deficit if hypovolaemic
Treat the underlying cause

12

What causes low volume hyponatraemia?

vom
decreased oral intake
diuretics
anti-depressants
convulsants

13

What causes normal volume hyponatraemia?

SIADH
hypothyroid
addisons

14

What causes high volume hyponatraemia?

CCF
liver cirrhosis
nephrotic syndrome

15

How does hyponatraemia present?

nausea
anorexia
lethargy
neuro problems f really low

16

How do we Dx hyponatraemia?

fluid status
urinary Na
urine/serum osmolality
TFT
random cortisol

17

How do we treat low volume hyponatraemia?

fluids and salt

18

How do we treat normal/high volume hyponatraemia?

fluid restrict and IV na (specialist)