Soil & Plant Nutrition Cont'd Flashcards Preview

Principles of Biology II > Soil & Plant Nutrition Cont'd > Flashcards

Flashcards in Soil & Plant Nutrition Cont'd Deck (55):
0

True or False: soil type affects growth and distribution of different plants.

TRUE

1

This is a COMPLEX MIXTURE OF PARTICLES composed of INORGANIC and ORGANIC constituents.

Soil

2

True or False: soil is only composed of organic material.

FALSE, soil can be made up of organic AND INORGANIC constituents.

3

True or False: soil is the same texture throughout.

FALSE, soil VARIES in TEXTURE and has VARIOUS SIZED PARTICLES throughout

4

How does soil develop?

Soil develops from the WEATHERING of SOLID ROCK.

5

Name the THREE (3) types of WEATHERING.

Physical
Chemical
Biotic

6

True or False: rock is the aggregate of two or more minerals.

TRUE, for example GRANITE is comprised of VARIOUS MINERALS (more than seven).

7

This is the process of RELEASING MINERAL NUTRIENTS which CREATES SUBSTANCE that is MORE AMENABLE FOR LIFE.

Weathering

8

What are FOUR (4) examples of PHYSICAL WEATHERING?

Heat
Ice
Water
Pressure

9

Give an example of CHEMICAL WEATHERING.

Acid Rain

10

True or False: chemical weathering creates smaller particles and releases nutrients into soil.

TRUE

11

This type of WEATHERING occurs when a variety of ORGANISMS aid in producing soil.

Biotic Weathering

12

True or False: biotic weathering aids in chemical but not physical weathering.

FALSE, BIOTIC WEATHERING aids in BOTH CHEMICAL and PHYSICAL WEATHERING

13

This is the ORGANIC portion of SOIL.

Humus

14

True or False: the humus mainly consists of leaf-litter and plant dretritus.

TRUE, the HUMUS MAINLY consists of LEAF-LITTER and PLANT DETRITUS but also INCLUDES detritus of ANIMALS, FUNGI and BACTERIA

15

True or False: humus soil has a hard consistency.

FALSE, the HUMUS is SOFT in CONSISTENCY and it FOSTERS ROOT GROWTH.

16

These are LAYERS OF SOIL in VARIOUS STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT.

Soil Horizons

17

This HORIZON of soil is comprised of TOP SOIL, HUMUS and BROKEN DOWN ROCK.

A Horizon

18

True or False: the A Horizon is inorganic.

FALSE, the A HORIZON is ORGANIC and in fact PROVIDES NUTRIENTS and HABITAT for DETRITIVORES.

19

True or False: detritivores is the name for a diverse group of bacteria, fungi and animals.

TRUE, in fact 1 square meter of woodland A HORIZON soil can contain 1000 SPECIES of animal populations.

20

What are the THREE (3) major types of SOIL PARTICLES?

Sand
Silt
Clay

21

True or False: soil texture influences water drainage of soil.

TRUE, in fact LARGER particles drain FASTER bc it contains LARGE PORES while,

SMALLER particles drain SLOWER bc it contains SMALL PORES.

22

True or False: soil texture influences nutrient availability.

TRUE, in fact NUTRIENTS are ATTRACTED TO SOIL particles and ADHERE to them more or less DEPENDENT upon the SIZE of PARTICLES.

23

True or False: nutrients and water adhere more to larger particles.

FALSE, soils with LARGE particles ADHERE LESS while SMALL particles ADHERE MORE.

24

Why do nutrients ADHERE MORE to SMALL particles?

FINE PARTICLES have a GREATER SURFACE AREA for nutrients to adhere to

25

SOIL PARTICLES are _________ charged.

Negatively

26

True or False: cations are electrostatically bound.

TRUE, CATIONS are ELECTROSTATICALLY BOUND while ANIONS are NOT.

27

ANIONS are EASILY _________ while CATIONS are EASILY ________.

Anions: ACQUIRED by ROOTS

Cations: LEECHED during RAIN

28

This is the DISSOLUTION and REMOVAL of INORGANIC ions as water moves through the soil.

Leeching

29

HEAVY RAINFALL can reduce the ___________ of soil.

Fertility

30

This is the REPLACEMENT of MINERAL CATIONS by H+ ions.

Cation Exchange

31

This is a SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP in which BOTH PARTICIPANTS BENEFIT.

Mutualistic Relationship

32

This is the NARROW region of soil that is directly INFLUENCED by ROOT SECRETIONS and associated soil MICROORGANISMS.

Rhizophere

33

True or False: bacteria in the humus are mainly decomposers.

TRUE, BACTERIA in the HUMUS DECOMPOSE dead plant material.

34

PLANTS and BACTERIA have a MUTUALISTIC relationship in which BACTERIA PROVIDE __________ material for plants and PLANTS PROVIDE _________ material for bacteria.

Plants provide: ORGANIC material

Bacteria provide: INORGANIC material

35

List FOUR (4) functions of RHIZOBACTERIA.

1.) STIMULATE GROWTH by PRODUCING CHEMICALS (such as nitrogen)

2.) PROTECT the health of the PLANT by PRODUCING ANTIBIOTICS

3.) ABSORB TOXIC METALS

4.) Make NUTRIENTS more AVAILABLE

36

True or False: many bacteria can convert elemental nitrogen into useable forms of nitrogen.

TRUE, bacteria can convert N2 into ammonium or nitrate

37

This HORIZON of soil is made up of LESS ORGANIC matter and is MOSTLY ROCK.

B Horizon

38

This HORIZON of soil is made up of PARTIALLY BROKEN DOWN rock.

C Horizon

39

AMMONIUM is made available by what TWO (2) types of bacteria?

Ammonifying Bacteria
Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria

40

AMMONIFYING bacteria are decomposers that live in _______ and release _______.

Humus
Ammonia (NH3)

41

NITROGEN FIXING bacteria live in _______ and convert _________ to ________.

Soil
Nitrogen (N2) to Ammonia (NH3)

42

NITRATE (NO3-) is made available by process of _________.

Nitrification

43

What is the TWO (2) STEP process of NITRIFICATION?

Oxidation of AMMONIA (NH3) to nitrITE (NO2-)
Oxidation of nitrITE (NO2-) to nitrATE (NO3-)

44

Each AMMONIUM (NH4+) has ___ ATP molecules.

18

45

These form MUTUALISTIC RELATIONSHIPS with ROOTS and play a major role in PLANT NUTRITION.

Soil Fungi

46

These are the MUTUALISTIC ASSOCIATIONS of ROOTS and FUNGI.

Mycorrhizae

47

In the mutualistic relationship of MYCORRHIZAE, ________ provide carbohydrates while ________ INCREASE SURFACE AREA of roots.

Plants
Fungi

48

This type of MYCORRHIZAE grow ON the ROOT SURFACE.

Ectomycorrhizae

49

This type of MYCORRHIZAE grow INTO the ROOT CORTEX.

Arbuscular Mycorrhizae

50

These grow attached to other plants but NOT SOIL and are NOT PARASITES.

Epiphytes

51

These grow ATTACHED TO other PLANTS and obtain their source of NUTRIENTS FROM the HOST.

Parasites

52

These PLANTS obtain some nitrogen and minerals from KILLING/DIGESTING SMALL ANIMALS.

Carnivorous Plants

53

Some PARASITIC PLANTS have SPECIALIZED ROOTS called __________ that PENETRATE the PHLOEM of the host plant.

Haustoria

54

There are ___ species of DODDER, a parasitic plant that CONTAIN HAUSTORIA.

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