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responding to symptoms OSCE > Sore throat > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sore throat Deck (27):
1

Who are streptococcal throat infections most likely to occur in?

Children of school age

2

What are most sore throats which present in the pharmacy caused by?

Viral infections (90%) as opposed to bacterial

3

What is the common duration of sore throats?

7 - 10 days

Usually self limiting

Any longer then referral to the doctor is recommended

4

What should you do if the sore throat is extremely painful, without the presence of cough, cold or catarrhal symptoms?

Refer to the doctor if present for 24-48h

5

What other symptoms are sore throats often associated with?

cold
cough
catarrh

may also be fever and general aches and pains. these are keeping in line with a minor self limiting viral infection

6

What are both hoarseness and dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) indications for?

Referral

7

What will smoking do to a sore throat?

Exacerbate it

If the patient smokes, give advice about stopping

8

Which medications can cause sore throats?

Steroid inhalers (beclometasone or budesonide) can cause hoarseness and candidal infections of the throat and mouth

Can be prevented by rinsing the mouth with water after using the inhaler

`Poor inhaler technique as well as large doses of these steroid inhalers can be a cause

9

A patient taking which drug and presenting with a sore throat should be referred immediately?

Carbimazole

Sore throat can be first sign of life threatening infection

REFER immediately

10

What is the referral criteria for sore throat?

Hoarseness of 3 weeks and more

Dysphagia

Recurrent bouts of infection

Sore throat lasting 1 week or more

Failed medication

11

When is hoarseness caused ?

when there is inflammation of the vocalchords and larynx (laryngitis)

Associated with hoarse, diminished voice and sore throat

12

What is the advice for laryngitis?

Resting the voice

settles within a few days

antibiotics are not used

13

When is referral necessary for hoarseness in sore throats?

In babies and young children

If lasts more than 3 weeks

14

Would could be the cause of dysphagia presenting with sore throat?

Severe throat infections

Glandular fever

15

How does thrush of the mouth and throat appear?

White plaques in throat and gums

most commonly appears in babies and very elderly

Can be scraped off

surface is red and sore

16

What is the viral infection glandular fever caused by?

Epstein barr virus

leaves patients debilitated for a few months afterwards

17

Who does glandular fever typical present in?

Teenagers and young adults

14-21 years

can be transmitted by kissing

18

How can diagnosis of glandular fever be done?

Blood tests

Generally presents with severe sore throat after 2 weeks of general malaise

may be difficulty swallowing

inflamed with creamy exudates present

19

How long until the patient should see the doctor with a sore throat?

1 week

20

What are the first line treatment of sore throats?

Oral analgesics - provide rapid and effective relief

Paracetamol

Ibuprofen

Aspirin

21

What mouthwashes and sprays are available for sore throat?

Anti-inflammatory (benzydamine)

Local anaesthetic (benzocaine)

Lozenges and pastilles

22

How does benzydamine (anti-inflammatory agent) work in sore throat

Reduces pain and inflammation in the mouth and throat

23

What side effects has been reported with benzydmaine spray and mouthwash?

numbness
stinging of the mouth and throat

24

Can children use benzydamine?

Spray - only in children over 6

Mouthwash - only in children over 12

25

What are benzocaine and lidocaine?

local anaesthetics which can be used in throat sprays for pain relief

benzocaine can also be formulated in a lozenge and pastille

26

When should lozenges be avoided

In pregnancy

27

What should be recommended for sore throats in diabetes?

Mouthwashes and gargles are suitable

Sugar free pastilles are available