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Flashcards in South Africa History/Laws Deck (39):

Who planted the first vineyards in South Africa?

The history of the vine in South Africa can be traced to 1655, when Jan van Riebeeck of the Dutch East India Company founded Cape Town and established its first vineyard


Although in the 17th c the wines of SA were considered revoltingly sour, the French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution in their homeland.With this came a new wealth of winemaking knowledge came to the ____, and vineyards sprouted up in the 1680s and 1690s

Franschhoek Valley


Who created Vin de Constance?

However, Governor Simon van der Stel’s Constantia estate eclipsed the modest winemaking tradition of his predecessors, and the sweet Vin de Constance became the first New World wine to be coveted throughout the courts of Europe.


. SA struggles in 19th c?

-powdery mildew and phylloxera struck
-British finally abolished preferential tariffs in 1861, renewing competition between French wines and those of the Empire. Cape wines—often heavily treated with sulfur dioxide and fortified with poor brandy—simply could not compete in quality against French and German wines abroad or even at home
-expensive ocean transit rather than a short hop across the English Channel, and the Cape’s export trade suffered greatly
-Groot Constantia in 1885the root louse appeared on the property, ravaging the famous vineyards

...A golden era for Constantia ended, and South African vineyards, decimated by phylloxera and colonial war at the turn of the century, entered a period of decline


Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains AKA in SA?

Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains (also known in South Africa as Muscat de Frontignan or Muscadel). RED OR WHITE SKINNED.

Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains (also known in South Africa as Muscat de Frontignan or Muscadel) and its red-berried variant provided the base for white and red versions of Vin de Constance


What happed to the constantia estate in 1712, and then in 1778? What was it called then?

Founded near Cape Town in 1685, Constantia—now a ward of the Coastal Region—was divided into two estates upon Stel’s death in 1712. In 1778, Groot Constantia, one of the original estates, was sold to Hendrik Cloete, who renovated the property and brought international acclaim to the wines.


Grape for Vin de Constance and place in history?

Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains and its red-berried variant provided the base for white and red versions of Vin de Constance, a dried grape wine sold in the early 1800s to a plethora of dignitaries, including King Louis Philippe (the last king of France) and the exiled Napoleon Bonaparte.


Ko-operatieve Wijnbouwers Vereniging van Zuid-Afrika (KWV) in 1918?

formed in 1918 with the support of 90% of South Africa’s growers. The KWV, a cooperative of wine producers and growers, fixed minimum prices, determined areas of production and established production limits—powers formalized in the 1924 Wine and Spirits Control Act. It pulled the industry back from the brink of disaster but favored large producers and rewarded lower quality, as it set viable prices even for distillation wine.


Ko-operatieve Wijnbouwers Vereniging van Zuid-Afrika (KWV) in 1994-7?

However, the end of apartheid in 1994 and the transformation of the KWV into a private company in 1997 spurred a great renewal in the industry. International economic sanctions and boycotts were lifted, opening export markets, and the KWV relinquished its statutory powers and scrapped quotas as early as 1992, encouraging growers to focus on quality.


What is SAWIS?

In 2002, The South African Wine & Spirit Board began to offer quality certification through SAWIS (South African Wine Information & Systems) in accordance with the Wine of Origin scheme, South Africa’s appellation system.


What is SAWIT?

In 1999, the South African Wine Industry Trust (SAWIT) was established to speed transformation of South African wine and to empower black workers in an industry that had long relied on slave- and apartheid-era labor - cofounded by KWV practices.


What is the WO?

The Wine of Origin (WO) system, introduced in 1973, compels producers seeking certification to submit a sample of the wine for evaluation by a tasting panel.


What is a Single vineyard wine?

The term “Single Vineyard Wine” may be used for wines sourced solely from the vineyard, provided it is appropriately registered and of less than 6 hectares. -WO


What is Estate Wine?

Estate wines must be produced from contiguous parcels of vineyard land, and vinified and bottled on a single property. -WO


How do you know a bottle has been approved by the WO? What if there is not an indication?

A WO seal appears on all bottles of South African wine that pass certification. While it is an entirely voluntary process, none of the above claims—vintage, varietal, or area of production—may legally appear on any bottle that forgoes certification.


WO Requirements

-tasting panel, which confirms that the wine shows the correct organoleptic qualities for its cultivar (variety) and age.
-scientific analysis
-Must be approved cultivar (75)
-as of 2006
-85% grape
-Blends may list several grapes, if vinification occurred separately and each listed grape comprises a minimum 20% of the wine
- 85% vintage is also required
-100% stated area


What are the 4 types of production areas?

There are four types of production areas, in descending order of size: geographical unit, region, district, and ward.


What is IPW?

In 1998, South Africa launched the Integrated Production of Wine Scheme (IPW), a voluntary means of certification for WO producers wishing to comply with sustainable environmental standards.


IPW requirements?

The IPW sets guidelines for agricultural, manufacturing, and packaging practices, and certification falls under the jurisdiction of the SA Wine & Spirit Board. Wineries are judged on a number of points, including worker safety measures, handling of wastewater, carbon emissions, use of pesticides and other chemicals, and vineyard biodiversity. Starting with the 2010 vintage, wines that meet a minimum score in IPW evaluation (60% or better) and qualify for WO certification will be marked with a joint seal, indicating a "sustainable wine of origin," rather than the basic WO seal.


IPW wines and the future?

By 2011, 85% of South African WO wine carried this new seal, and virtually all WO wines in the future are expected to qualify for the IPW scheme as well.


South Africa’s wine-producing areas are divided into five large geographical areas: What are they?

South Africa’s wine-producing areas are divided into five large geographical areas: Western Cape, Northern Cape, Eastern Cape, Kwazulu-Natal, and Limpopo.


What are the 5 production areas of the northern cape?

Northern Cape consists of only five production areas: the Douglas and Sutherland-Karoo districts, and the independent Hartswater, Central Orange River, and Rietrivier FS wards.


Eastern Cape wards? Wards/Districts of Kwazulu-Natal and Limpopo?

Eastern Cape has a single ward (St. Francis Bay) and Kwazulu-Natal and Limpopo contain no other production areas.


Where does most of south African wine production take place?

Western Cape


Western Cape production areas?

Coastal Region, Cape South Coast, Breede River Valley, Klein Karoo, Olifants River, and Boberg.


Western Cape Terroir

At a latitude of 27°-34°, the Western Cape’s climate is essentially Mediterranean, with warm, sunny growing seasons, although the Benguela Current flows north from Antarctica to cool the coastal areas. The Cape Doctor, a notoriously strong southeasterly wind, blows across the Western Cape throughout the spring and summer, inhibiting fungal disease and moderating temperature—but also ferociously battering the vines.


Coolest area in all of SA

The Cape’s southernmost district, Cape Agulhas, offers the coolest climate in the country,- Western Cape


South Africa's warmest viticultural area?

Northern Cape production areas along the Orange River experience a hot, arid climate and are generally only suitable for bulk wines.


South African name for varietal?



South African major White plantings

#1 Chenin/Steen occupying around 20% of the nation’s vineyards.
#3 SB
+ Colombar(d) (a significant ingredient in South Africa's cheap dry whites), Cape Riesling (Crouchen), Semillon, Riesling, Gewürztraminer, various Muscats.


Chenin blanc AKA?

Chenin Blanc, known locally as Steen


What is Cape Riesling?

a synonym for Crouchen Blanc unrelated to Riesling


What is Hanepoot?

Muscat of Alexandria


What is Pinotage?

Cinsault x Pinot Noir Abraham Perold in 1925 - smoky fruity pungent


What is Pontac?

a teinturier grape linked to the old red wines of Constantia, enjoys a limited revival amongst dedicated producers.


What is Cap Classique?

Traditional method sparkling wines known as “Cap Classique” are increasingly produced from Chardonnay and Pinot Noir


Fortified Styles in SA?

fortified styles include Cape Port and Sherry—terms that were phased out in 2012.
- Cape Port today is generally named according to its style: Cape Tawny, Cape Ruby, and so forth.

- Jerepigo - VDL/Mistelle

- Hanepoot - Fortified Muscat d'Alexandria

- Muscadelle - Fortified Muscat de Frontignan

- Sherry-style wines are marketed as Fino, Amontillado, Oloroso, Pale Cream, Pale Dry, Medium Dry, Full Cream and Old Brown in South Africa.


Important red grapes of South Africa

Cabernet Sauvignon is now the dominant variety, followed at by Shiraz, then Pinotage and Merlot.
40%+ of vineyard land is Red Grapes


What is Jerepigo?

Jerepigo is a fortified style of wine, made from red or white grapes. Mistelle/VDL, as it is fortified MUST, not fortified wine. Found in eastern fortified wine regions (Klein Karoo's Calitzdorp, Western Cape's Breede River Region, Boberg, Swartland, etc)