South asian Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in South asian Vocabulary Deck (80):
1

Agni

Second most important deity in Vedic pantheon
Seen as model priest
Is fire in its multitalented forms eg: hearth fire, sun, digestive fire
Pertains to sacrifice - fire transmits offerings to the heavens

2

Ahimsa

Non-violence
Towards all living things or their souls.

3

Atman

True/Personal self/soul
The inherent source of both life energy and spiritual awareness
The self beyond illusory ego formulations
To discover atman is to attain moksha

4

Bhagavad Gita

"Song of the lord Krishna"
Provides the he central ideological and theological vision of the epic Mahanharta
Looks at human nature and the purpose of life

5

Bhakti

Devotion- bhad experiencing something good
Praticipatin in or sharing in divine being
Enjoying gods presence, worshipping him
Being as intimidate as possible
Complete self devotion to the God

6

Brahma

God of creation and the patron of Vedic and orthodox Brahmans. Part of modern Hindu trinity=Brahman create the world, Cishnu protects and sustains I, shiva d story's it.

7

brahman/Brahmin

Refers to the highest caste, the priestly caste, the twice born
From the mouth of purusa

8

Dalit

"The untouchables"
Lowest caste/ excluded from the cast system
They handle the impure jobs

9

Devi

"The goddess" - comes in many forms
The constitution of the gods, semi independent and independent.
Have Shakti which give animating qualities to the male gods

10

Dharma

Translates as religion, duty, law, right, justice
Refers to the proper behaviour, dependent on caste, genre and stage of life.
Codified in the dharmashastras - seen to be onscribed in entire, not codified by humans
Fundamental concept of Hinduism

11

Guru

Literally "weighty", refer to spiritual teachers
Sadhus who have become teachers,
Cannot marry or have sex
One can become a sadhu, can be from an caste
Social role : so

12

Hanuman

Roma's servant
,monkey god
Greatest devotee Rama
IncarnTion of wind or shiva
Courage power, selfless

13

Indra

Most important deity in the Vedic pantheon
Active , powerful, unpredictable, combative God
Honoured for courage and strength
Divine prototype of a warrior
King of heaven lightening, thing
Der, rains and river God

14

Karma

Consequences of action (violence especially brings karmic consequences)
Moral law of cause and effect of acne and thoughts
Appears in Jainism - karma attaches to your soul

15

Krishna

One of vishnu's avatars (8th incarnation)
God of compassion
Plays flu as a boy

16

Mantra

Chants and Vedic hymns which have power over the external world
Sacred utterances

17

Moksha

Liberation
Theory of release from the cycle of rebirth, means of liberation or salvation. It is attained through lack of desire.

18

Puja

Spiritual transaction between the incarnate deity and worshippers

19

Purana

Ancient or old -literal translation
A genre of texts articulating more fully the theistic view outlined in the epics
Discuss cosmology, Royal genealogies, society, dharma , academics geography of pilgrimage sites, yogic practices, town planning, even gamer and poetics
Discusses shiva and Vishnu and their mythology

20

Rama

The ideal man or King
A hero in the epic Ramayana, war between gods and evil Asuras
Rama and other characters are exemplary roles of their social counter parts...
Divine birth and death, lives in wilderness for 12 years with wife and brother, Rama teams up with hanuman monkey army and recuse Sita, Rama defeats Ravana
Incantation of the God Vishnu

21

Sadhu

Holy person, renounced (excludes priests), celibate, detached from material goods, and devoted to spiritual life, devoted to moksha/liberation

22

Samsara

Rebirth

23

Sannyasin

Renouncer initiated into an order

24

Sanskrit

Original indo European language of South Asia which was introduced into India 4000 years ago approx.

25

Sati

Widow imolation
Derived from the goddess sati
Myth:'shiva and sati together shiva is insulted so sati jumps on a funeral pyre
Traditionally Seem to show loyalty
More modern/ western view : barbaric, seen to possibly be a way to gain wealth and honour for family.

26

Shakti

Female energy
Females provide the animating qualities for life, the energy, where as males provide structure
Power of the goddess

27

Shiva

One of the principle deities of Hinduism
The auspicious
an outsider live in Himalayas
Dual nature both malevolent and belevolent
Hermit and family man
Destroyer and transformer
Role model to yogis and those looking for moksha
Immobile mediator
Cosmic dancer

28

Shruti

"Heard" , verbal, original, divine text
Refers to the body of most author active texts comprising of the central canon of Hinduism
Includes the four Vedas

29

Sita

Ramas wife
The ideal women: loyal, goes to forest with Rama, chaste
Sacrifice herself for Rama
Ideal example of dharma

30

Smriti

To remember, what is remembered , this refers to a body. Hindu texts usually attributed to an author, traditionally written down but constantly revised
literature such as the epics and Puranas

31

Soma

Mysterious plant , aliquot, and a God personifying the effects of ingesting the liquid from the plant.
Associated with sacrifice, and drunk for insoiration, vision, revelation by poets at sacrificial gatherings

32

Tantra

Word used in two ways : broad = series of ritual and yogic practices seperate min Vedic tradition
Restricted = a syepsyem of thought and practice based on a few shared premises and orientations. Hindu groups recognise the female goddess Shakti as shivas consort

33

Tapas

One aspect of sacrifice = heat
Built up through ascetic practice

34

Upanishad

"Sitting close to teacher"
The books often recount discussions between teachers and students
Introduce notions of Karma, samsara, moksha
Later accepted by many Indians as the culmination of the Vedas , it's highest teachings
They introduce a set of new concepts that grow out of earlier Vedic thought
Commonly referred to as the last Vedanta
The concerns of the atman is a key focus
Communication to god happened in the mind, through meditation and yoga ect...
Belief in atman
Considered a more orthodox version of the Vedas
Sacrifice and rituals not as important as in the Vedas

35

Vishnu

One of the principle deities of Hinduism
"The one who pervades"
He takes over Indians role as primary demon vanquished
He is both supreme deity and active embodied finite God involved in human affairs
Rises through ranks to be me too God
Has 10 incarnations or avatars eg: Krishna in order to destroy demon kamsa
Dreams the universe into reality; creator of the cosmic order and the elements

36

Yajna

Vedic sacrifice
Sacrifice cosmology/cosmogony =sacrifice that reproduces the cosmos
They replicate the layout of the cosmos with the altar
Sacrifice, devotion, worship, offering
Ritual done in front of a sacred fire
Offers include, Millie, ghee, grains, cake.

37

Yoga

A set of beliefs and practices set out by patanjali in his yoga sutras. An accumulation of yogic practice for many centuries prior.
Based around 8 limbs
Origins ancient India

38

Arati

Part of Puja (worship)
Waving a light clockwise in front of a statue of a deity while placing one hand on the eyes to absorb the laugh of the deity

39

Aryan

"THe noble ones" or "victors"
Applied to migrants who moved into the Indus Valley the second millennium bce

40

Ashram

A scluded hermitage often in the first
Teacher and disciples,meditation, usually headed by a guru
Individuals of this practice resign themselves from the worlds

41

Asuras

Demons
Power seeking deities - sinful
Opposed to Eva's
Cause chaos

42

Avatar

An earthly embodiment of a deity

43

Ayurveda

Traditional Hindu medicine

44

Brahmana

Part of the Hindu literature
Commentaries on the Vedas, detailing the proper performances of rituals and discussing the meaning , purpose and history of the mantras

45

Darshana

Part of practicing Puja before murti
Act of seeing and being seen by the deity, accompanied by intense emotion
Touching the feet of the deity

46

Deva-Loka

Plan of blissful existence where the gods and Eva reside
Place of eternal light and goodness

47

Ganesha

Son of shiva and Parvati
Remover of obstacles,,invoked when beginning worship or starting any new venture
Also revered in Jainism

48

Ganga

The river Ganges personification as a goddess

49

Guna

One of the three qualities that make up the whole of the manifest universe or prakriti
3gunas
1. Creation, being harmony
2. Preservation
3. Destruction

50

Istadeva

Personal favourite God or goddess
Daily ritual in temple home or act of devotion
Multisensory: incense sweets image or sculpture of deva

51

Jati

Sub-Varna caste

52

Jnana

Knowledge, along with action and devotion. One of the three paths to moksha

53

Kali

Wife of shiva
Capable of destroying ten worst evil,
Ndings and beginnings
Fearless goddess with heart of a mother
Associated with Shakti

54

Kaliyuga

The age of ignorance, darkness or the emoji which is the current age.

55

Kshatriyas

The scone of the four castes
Traditionally warriors or administrators
Purusas Arms

56

Lakshmi

Hindu goddess of wealth and good fortune spiritual and physical
Vishnu's wife, on a lotus incarnates to help Vishnu
One of the main forms of the Devi (mother goddess)
Ideal wife

57

Lingua/shiva Linga

The symbol of shivas generative power
Both female and male gentialia featured for balance
Libations poured over during rituals for regenerative powers ie. Milk

58

Mahanharta

Sanskrit epic
Includes the Bhagavad Gita
Source of many stories about dharma (explicitly war or class)

59

Mahavira

24th tirthankara (Jainism)
Pursuit of spiritual awakening, a bond all worldly possssions and blame an ascetic

60

Murti

Typically refers to an image that expresses a divine spirit
Meaning literally embodiment, a represent an of a deity, made out of stone, wood, or metal by a special trained Brahmins
Important part of Puja

61

Namaste

"Bowing to you"
I bow to e divine in you

62

Nirguna

Without qualities

63

Nirvana

A transcendent state in which there are neither suffering or desir, or sense of self
Subjec released from cycle of Rebirth
Represents the final hole in Buddhism.

64

Parvati

Consort of shiva
Neither of Ganesha and skanda
Supreme goddess of fertility and love and Devotion

65

Pitr-loka

World of the ancestors

66

Prana

Life force or vital force
All cosmic energy that's present at all levels of the universe
Originates from the Sunni living things, this universal energy is Seen as responsible for all bodily functions

67

Prasada

Is a material substance of food that is a religious offering
It is no all consumed by worshippers after Puja, worship
Prasada is considered to have the deities blessing residing within it for the primary worshipper

68

Raja

A title for a monarch or princely ruler of South Asia

69

Shaiva(ism)

On of the major traditions within Hinduism that Evers shiva as the supreme bein

70

Shudra

Fourth Varna caste

71

Svayamabhu

"Self-manifested", "self-existing", what is created by its own accord

72

Swami

An ascetic or yogi
Initiated into a monastic order

73

Artha

Material prosperity/life, wealth, politics.

74

Kama

Desire, sensual pleasure

75

Tejas

Light
Power, brilliance, energy
Agni

76

Vedas

"Knowledge"
A large body of texts originating in ancient Indian subcontinent
4 Vedas = rig Veda, yajurveda, samaveda, arharveda
Sub categorised into four major text types.
Samaritans, mantras
Aranyakas rituals ceremonies sacrifices symbolic sacrifices
Brahmans, rituals ceremonies and cpsacrifices
Upanishad: discuss meditation, philosophy and spiritual knowledge
Communication with God happened in external, materialistic ways all but Upanishad

77

Vaishnava

Followers who believe Vishnu is the supreme God

78

Ramayana

Epic mythical poem, path of Rama
Tells the story of defeating Ravana
Shows examples of social ideals
Rama = incarnation of Vishnu
Dharma and relationship

79

Hindutva

Literally hinduness
Term introduce in 20s
Ideology
Rewrite history to say myths are history

80

Four stages of life

Student : celibate, under guru (up to 20yrs)
Householder: married, children economic activity (20-50yrs)
First ascetic: semi-renunciation; go to forest with wife, may keep some social ties, may continue to perform yajnas (perhaps to death)
Renunciation: full renunciation, leave family, community, all social ties, will not perform yajnas but internalise the sacrifice, be celibate. (To death)