Specialised Cells / Sex Cells Flashcards Preview

Biology Unit 1 > Specialised Cells / Sex Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Specialised Cells / Sex Cells Deck (19):
1

What are specialised cells?

Specialised cells have structures that make them adapted for a particular function.

2

What is the function of a red blood cell?

To transport oxygen around the body

3

How does the structure of red blood cells make them adapted to its function?

Flexible to squeeze through narrow blood capillaries. Biconcave shape increases surface area for oxygen exchange. No nucleus or other organelles to increase space for haemoglobin to hold oxygen.

4

What is the function of a Palisade mesophyll cell?

Photosynthesis

5

How does the structure of a Palisade mesophyll cell make it adapted to its function?

Lots of chloroplasts that can move, cells closely packed together, large vacuole to maintain turgor pressure.

6

What is the function of an Egg cell or ovum?

To supply proteins needed by a fertilised egg cell. Contain half of the genetic information.

7

How does the structure of an Egg cell make it adapted to its function?

Zona pellucida for protection. Contains a large amount of protein. Nucleus holding genetic material.

8

What is the function of a Root hair cell?

To take up water and minerals from the soil

9

How does the structure of a Root hair cell make it adapted to its function?

Long hair like extension increases the surface area for the uptake of water and minerals. Thin cell wall decreases the distance water and minerals have to travel. Vacuole has little water inside to speed up the movement of water into the cell.

10

What is the function of a Sperm cell?

To deliver genetic information to the egg cell / ovum in fertilisation.

11

How does the structure of a Sperm cell make it adapted to its function?

Tail (undulipodium) to move to egg, lots of mitochondria to supply the energy needed to move to egg, acrosome containing digestive enzymes needed to digest the egg cell outer layer.

12

What is the function of a White blood cell / neutrophil?

Digest pathogens

13

How does the structure of a White blood cell make it adapted to its function?

Multi-lobed nuclei which allows them to squeeze through small gaps to get to the site of an infection. The cytoplasm contains lysosomes that hold enzymes to digest the pathogens.

14

What is a gamete?

Sperm and egg (are gametes sex cells). They have half the number of chromosomes that a normal cell has.

15

Suggest reasons for the different sizes of egg and sperm cells

-The egg is large as it contains a food store for the developing embryo.
-The sperm are small in order to increase the efficiency of their locomotion.

16

What is the function of the middle section of a sperm?

It contains mitochondria to provide energy for locomotion.

17

The acrosome is a modified lysosome. Compare an acrosome with a lysosome in a normal body cell.

They both contain hydrolytic enzymes which digest parts of a cell. A lysosome digests parts of a cell during cell death or in the normal recycling of cell organelles, whereas the acrosome enzymes only digest the passage through into an egg cell. Lysosomes are distributed throughout the cell, whereas the acrosome is at the front of the sperm head only.

18

What is osmosis?

The diffusion of water from a high water concentration to a lower water concentration.

19

What is active transport?

Movement of substances against a concentration gradient.