1nm =

1 minute of latitude

why cant we use a meridian of longitude as a reference point to measure distance?

Its because they converge at the poles and are therefore not constant and hence unreliable

The scale on a WAC and on a VTC is nearly .....

perfect

The scale on ERC charts .....

varies and can be found along the bottom of the map

All of the aerodynamic forces experienced by an aircraft are as a result of ..... ..... or ..... .....

air pressure or air friction

Air friction is not a factor at ..... speeds

subsonic

Kenitic Energy =

1/2 MV^{2}

Dynamic pressure is another name for .....

wind

Total Pressure =

Static Pressure + Dynamic Pressure

Total pressure - static pressure =

dynamic pressure

The ASI doesnt measure .....

Dynamic pressure it measures the total pressure and displays the dynamic pressure as the difference between the static and the dynamic

The ASI is subject to 2 types of errors, name them .....

1. Position error

2. Instrument error

When IAS is corrected for position and instrument error we have .....

Calibrated air speed (CAS)

Dynamic pressure depends on the ..... ..... of the air which in turn depends upon both the ..... and ..... of the airstream

Kinetic energy, density and velocity

Whenever the ambient air density is not equal to the standard sea level values the ..... will differ from the .....

CAS will differ from the TAS

How do you find the TAS on an E6B?

You need to set the density altitude against the OAT and read the CAS off the inner scale.

The coresponding number on the outer scale will give the TAS.

Cruise Alt = 4000ft

QNH 1013

OAT = +25

CAS = 140

What is the TAS

153kts

Cruise Alt = 9000ft

QNH 1013

OAT = +3

CAS = 195

What is the TAS

219kts

Cruise Alt = 14000ft

QNH 1013

OAT = -10

CAS = 220

What is the TAS

272kts

Ground speed is found by adjusting the TAS for the ..... ?

wind

On your E6B the outer edge of the moving plate represents ..... in relation to time?

minutes

On your E6B the scale on the base plate (fixed) represents ..... in relation to distance?

miles

GS = 145kts

Distance = 400nm

Time =

165 minutes

GS = 135kts

Distance = 225nm

Time =

101 minutes

GS = 480kts

Distance = 650nm

Time =

81.5 minutes

The best way to measure the GS when VFR is to .....

1. Take a fix over 2 known points and note the time at both

2. Measure the distance

3. Calculate the time it took to fly the distance

GS = 95kts

Time = 47 minutes

Distance =

74nm

Time = 52 minutes

Distance = 113nm

GS =

130kts

GS = 130kts

Distance = 78nm

Time =

36 minutes

GS = 163kts

Time = 31 minutes

Distance =

84nm

Time = 17 minutes

Distance = 46nm

GS =

162kts

GS = 87kts

Distance = 49nm

Time =

34 minutes

GS = 105kts

Time = 56 minutes

Distance =

98nm

Time = 43 minutes

Distance = 103nm

GS =

143kts

For GA aircraft CAS is said to be the same as .....

IAS

In GA what errors do we ignore in the cruise in relation to the ASI?

Position and instrument errors are ignored in the cruise

Describe th speed time distance matrix:

IAS

CAS

OAT / Pressure Height

TAS

GS

Wind Correction

Distance

Time

GPH = 9.0

Minutes = 150

How many Gallons used?

23

GPH = 14

Total Used = 32

Find Time

137 minutes

GPH = 8.5

Minutes = 73

Find Gallons used

10.4

GPH = 11.4

Gallons Used = 55

Find Time

290 minutes

The actual fuel used in flight is known as ..... .....

Fuel Flow

When fuel planning for GA aircraft operating below 10,000 feet we ignore what?

The climb and decent

Regulation 234 of the CAR says what?

A pilot must take reasonable steps to ensure that there is sufficent fuel and oil on board to carry out the flight

Fixed reserve fuel is typically specified in ..... minutes

45 minutes

Additional fuel will also need to be factored in for ....., ..... and .....

start up, taxi and run up

Your operator requires you to hold 45 minutes of reserve fuel at the cruise consumption and 2 gallons for start up and taxi allowance. What is the total flight fuel for an ETI of 133 minutes at 12gph

38 gallons

A variable reserve may be required for .....

enroute factors such as diversions, headwinds, holding ect

Variable reserve fuel is usually .....% of ..... .....

15% of the flight fuel

To find the variable reserve you need to multiply the flight fuel by .....

1.15

CPL questions in relation to fuel will always require a ..... .....

fixed reserve

remember that the question will define the fuel policy for reserves, start up ect

Sometimes you will need to find the maximum flight fuel available - this is known as ..... .....

safe endurance

When finding the maximum flight fuel available we do not include ..... ....., ..... ..... or ..... .....

fixed reserve, variable reserve or startup/taxi allowance

convert gallons to liters by .....

gallons x 3.78

convert litres to gallons by ......

litres / 3.78 = gallons

When seeking the safe endurance we need to work out 4 things to find the solution to the question, name them.

1. Flight Fuel

2. Variable Reserve

3. Fixed Reserve

4. Taxi / start up fuel

If we have all 4 of these things we can easily work the solution to any endurance problem