1 minute of latitude
why cant we use a meridian of longitude as a reference point to measure distance?
Its because they converge at the poles and are therefore not constant and hence unreliable
The scale on a WAC and on a VTC is nearly .....
The scale on ERC charts .....
varies and can be found along the bottom of the map
All of the aerodynamic forces experienced by an aircraft are as a result of ..... ..... or ..... .....
air pressure or air friction
Air friction is not a factor at ..... speeds
Kenitic Energy =
Dynamic pressure is another name for .....
Total Pressure =
Static Pressure + Dynamic Pressure
Total pressure - static pressure =
The ASI doesnt measure .....
Dynamic pressure it measures the total pressure and displays the dynamic pressure as the difference between the static and the dynamic
The ASI is subject to 2 types of errors, name them .....
1. Position error
2. Instrument error
When IAS is corrected for position and instrument error we have .....
Calibrated air speed (CAS)
Dynamic pressure depends on the ..... ..... of the air which in turn depends upon both the ..... and ..... of the airstream
Kinetic energy, density and velocity
Whenever the ambient air density is not equal to the standard sea level values the ..... will differ from the .....
CAS will differ from the TAS
How do you find the TAS on an E6B?
You need to set the density altitude against the OAT and read the CAS off the inner scale.
The coresponding number on the outer scale will give the TAS.
Cruise Alt = 4000ft
OAT = +25
CAS = 140
What is the TAS
Cruise Alt = 9000ft
OAT = +3
CAS = 195
What is the TAS
Cruise Alt = 14000ft
OAT = -10
CAS = 220
What is the TAS
Ground speed is found by adjusting the TAS for the ..... ?
On your E6B the outer edge of the moving plate represents ..... in relation to time?
On your E6B the scale on the base plate (fixed) represents ..... in relation to distance?
GS = 145kts
Distance = 400nm
GS = 135kts
Distance = 225nm
GS = 480kts
Distance = 650nm
The best way to measure the GS when VFR is to .....
1. Take a fix over 2 known points and note the time at both
2. Measure the distance
3. Calculate the time it took to fly the distance
GS = 95kts
Time = 47 minutes
Time = 52 minutes
Distance = 113nm
GS = 130kts
Distance = 78nm
GS = 163kts
Time = 31 minutes
Time = 17 minutes
Distance = 46nm
GS = 87kts
Distance = 49nm
GS = 105kts
Time = 56 minutes
Time = 43 minutes
Distance = 103nm
For GA aircraft CAS is said to be the same as .....
In GA what errors do we ignore in the cruise in relation to the ASI?
Position and instrument errors are ignored in the cruise
Describe th speed time distance matrix:
OAT / Pressure Height
GPH = 9.0
Minutes = 150
How many Gallons used?
GPH = 14
Total Used = 32
GPH = 8.5
Minutes = 73
Find Gallons used
GPH = 11.4
Gallons Used = 55
The actual fuel used in flight is known as ..... .....
When fuel planning for GA aircraft operating below 10,000 feet we ignore what?
The climb and decent
Regulation 234 of the CAR says what?
A pilot must take reasonable steps to ensure that there is sufficent fuel and oil on board to carry out the flight
Fixed reserve fuel is typically specified in ..... minutes
Additional fuel will also need to be factored in for ....., ..... and .....
start up, taxi and run up
Your operator requires you to hold 45 minutes of reserve fuel at the cruise consumption and 2 gallons for start up and taxi allowance. What is the total flight fuel for an ETI of 133 minutes at 12gph
A variable reserve may be required for .....
enroute factors such as diversions, headwinds, holding ect
Variable reserve fuel is usually .....% of ..... .....
15% of the flight fuel
To find the variable reserve you need to multiply the flight fuel by .....
CPL questions in relation to fuel will always require a ..... .....
remember that the question will define the fuel policy for reserves, start up ect
Sometimes you will need to find the maximum flight fuel available - this is known as ..... .....
When finding the maximum flight fuel available we do not include ..... ....., ..... ..... or ..... .....
fixed reserve, variable reserve or startup/taxi allowance
convert gallons to liters by .....
gallons x 3.78
convert litres to gallons by ......
litres / 3.78 = gallons
When seeking the safe endurance we need to work out 4 things to find the solution to the question, name them.
1. Flight Fuel
2. Variable Reserve
3. Fixed Reserve
4. Taxi / start up fuel
If we have all 4 of these things we can easily work the solution to any endurance problem