Flashcards in Spinal 2 Ex 2 Wk 1 Deck (40):
The vertebral Artery on which side is typically larger?
Left vertebral artery
What is the gender bias regarding size of the vertebral artery?
men have larger vertebral arteries than women
what is the name of the physical exam used to determine vertebral artery patency?
The vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency test
Which side artery is tested during the course of the vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency exam?
the ipsilateral artery on the side of rotation
At what location will the vertebral artery form its first compensatory loop?
the atlanto-axial interspace
At what segments will the vertebral artery be firmly attached to the transverse foramen?
both C1 and C2
What is the purpose of the vertebral artery loops between C2,C1, and occiput?
The increase length will accommodate the greater rotation at these locations
What happens to the vertebral arteryafter it enters the subarachnoid space at C1?
The vertebral artery asends along the medulla oblongata to the pontine-medullary junction where the right and left arteries unite to form the basilar artery
What forms the boundaries for the exit of the C1 nerve from the spinal canal?
Occipital Condyle, superior articular process of C1, capsular ligament, arcuate rim, groove for the vertebral artery, posterior atlanto-occipital ligament
What forms the boundaries for the exit of the C2 nerve from the spinal canal?
Inferior articular process of C1, superior articular process of C2, capsular ligament, inferior vertebral notch of C1, superior vertebral notch of C2, posterior arch of C1, lamina of C2, posterior atlanto- axial ligament.
What forms the anterior boundary for the C3-C7 nerve exit from the spinal canal?
The vertebral bodies, intervertebral disc, posterior longitudinal ligament, uncinate process, lateral groove
What forms the anterior boundary for the C8 nerve exit from the spinal canal?
The vertebral bodies of C7 and T1, intervertebral disc, posterior longitudinal ligament, capsular ligament of the costocentral joint, superior costal facet of T1 and articular surface of the first rib
What features will allow discrimination between T2-T4 and T5-T8 segmental groups?
The vertebral body, transverse process, articular process and spinous process
What is the aortic impression?
The flattening of the superior and inferior epiphyseal rims on the left side of the vertebral body of T5-T8 which give the vertebral body a less scalloped or less indented appearance on that side
What is the height pattern of the typical thoracic vertebral body?
The posterior height is greater than the anterior height by one to two millimeters
What joint classifications are identified at the vertebral body of a typical thoracic?
Amphiarthrosis syndesmosis, amphiarthrosis symphysis and diarthrosis arthrodia
What is the name given to the joint formed between the vertebral body and rib?
What ligaments support the costocentral joint?
The radiate costocentral or stellate costocentral ligament and the interarticular or intra-articular ligament
What does the intra-articular or interarticular ligament connect to?
The interarticular or intra-articular crest of the capitulum of the rib and the intervertebral disk
Which muscle(s) is attached to the vertebral body of T2 or T3?
The longus colli
Which X-ray view is used to see into the intervertebral foramen of a typical thoracic?
The lateral view
What is the rib - vertebral body relationship at the typical thoracic intervertebral foramen?
In the intervertebral foramen, the number of the rib is the same as the number of the lower thoracic in the vertebral couple
What is the distance between the transverse tubercles in the typical thoracic region?
From T2 each transverse diameter becomes shorter as the transverse processes angle more posteriorly
What ligaments support the costotransverse joint of a typical thoracic?
The superior costotransverse, inferior costotransverse, and lateral costotransverse ligaments
The superior costotransverse ligament of the transverse process of T4 will attach to which rib?
The fifth rib
Which muscles may attach to the transverse process of a typical thoracic?
The longissimus thoracis, longissimus cervicis, longissimus capitis semispinalis thoracis, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis capitis multifidis, rotator longus, rotator brevis, intertransversarii, levator costarum longus and levator costarum brevis
How can you distinguish between a T2-T4 from T5-T8 segment using the articular process?
At T2-T4 the width between the superior articualr processes is greater than the width between the inferior articular processes of that vertebra. At T5-T8 the width between the superior articular processes is equal to or the same as the width between the inferior articular processes of that vertebra
Identify the synovial joint surfaces present on a typical thoracic.
Two superior costal demi-facets, two inferior costal demi-facets, two transverse costal facets, two superior articular facets, two inferior articular facets
What is the angulation of the spinous process in the typical thoracic region?
The undersurface of T2-T4 spinous processes will angle up to forty degrees from the horizontal plane. The undersurface of T5-T8 spinous processes will angle up to sixty degrees from the horizontal plane
Which muscles may attach to the spinous process of a typical thoracic?
Rhomboid major, serratus posterior superior, splenius cervicis, splenius capitis, spinalis thoracis, spinalis cervicis, spinalis capitis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidis, rotator longus, rotator brevis and interspinalis
What Joints are identified at the vertebral body of T1?
Vertebral body to anterior longitudinal ligament at the epiphyseal rims,
vertebral body to posterior longitudinal ligament at the epiphyseal rims, vertebral body to vertebral body via the intervertebral discs, vertebral body to capitulum of a rib (costocentral joint)
How many joints are formed at the vertebral body of T1?
Typically ten; fourteen if the rib ligaments are included.
Which spinal nerve-vertebral notch or incisure combination is present at T1?
C8 spinal nerves- the superior vertebral notch ir incisure of T1, T1 spinal nerve- the inferior vertebral notch or incisure of T1
What ligament is absent at the costotransverse joint of T1?
The superior costotransverse ligament
Which synovial joint surface is absent from the vertebral body of T10?
inferior costal demi-facets
Para-articular processes are more commonly observed on which segment?
A dimpling or depression of the skin in the thoracic region is often characteristic of the location of which segment?
What name is given to T11?
the anticlinal vertebra
What ligaments from the costotransverse joint of T11?
The superior costotransverse, and slightly developed inferior costotransverse and lateral costotransverse ligaments