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Flashcards in Spinal 2 Exam 2 Wk 3 Deck (30):
1

What joint is formed between the odontoid process ossification centers and the centrum of C2?

the subdental synchondrosis

2

What is the name given to the condition in which the joint formed between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 persists beyond age 7?

os odontoideum

3

What is the name given to the joint formed between the tip of the dens and the odentoid process centers of ossification?

tip of the dens synchondrosis

4

If the joint formed between the tip of the dens and odontoid process centers of ossification persists beyond age 12, what is the condition called?

terminal ossicle

5

What is the gender bias suggested in dorsalization of C7?

female

6

What C7 facet orientation changes may accompany cervicalization?

the inferior articular facet may change from forward, medial, and downward to forward, lateral, and downward; the superior articular facet is unchanged

7

What is the gender bias associated with dorsalization of L1?

males are two to three times more affected

8

What T12 facet orientation changes may accompany lumbarization?

the superior articular facet may change from flat, back, upward, and lateral to concave, back, upward, and medial; the inferior articular facet is unchanged

9

What is characteristic of lumbarization of S1?

the failure of synostosis between S1 and S2, squaring of the vertebral body of S1 and flaring of the sacral ala

10

Which segment demonstrates the greatest morphological variation along the spine?

L5

11

What is the traditional time of appearance of the cervical curve said to be?

during the last trimester in utero

12

What development events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical curve?

centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in the brain musculature attaching the skull, cervical region, and upper thorax together develops the head is held upright the intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior

13

What is the name given to the integration of visual and motor pathways associated with holding the head erect?

the righting reflex

14

What is the location for the cervical kyhosis?

between occiput and C1

15

What infant activities are associated with the development of the lumbar curve?

crawling and walking

16

What developments events are indicated in the formation of the adult lumbar curve?

crawling will cause the abdomen to put tension on the lumbar region and pulls it forward muscle development is promoted to compensate for the swayback of the lumbars intervertebral disc height will become greater compared to posterior walking will further promote muscle and intervertebral disc development

17

What is the gender bias associated with lumbar curve convexity?

females have a greater convexity of the lumbar curve

18

What is the relationship between curve direction and handedness?

a right handed person has a high probability for a right thoracic, left lumbar curve combination

19

What clinical examples of abnormal curvatures along the vertebral column were stressed in class?

military neck, humpback or hunchback, and swayback

20

What are the curve classifications for military neck?

a kyphosis or hypolordotic curve

21

What are the curve classifications for swayback?

a lordosis or hyperlordic curve

22

What is the more complete, accepted definition of scoliosis?

an abnormal lateral curve coupled with axial rotation

23

What is the radiological test for skeletal maturity?

the Risser sign, an indication of bone maturity in the iliac apophysis

24

What are the classifications of scoliosis according to the Scoliosis Research Society?

magnitude, location, direction, etiology, and structural/non-structural

25

What is structural scoliosis?

a more radical form of scoliosis, it may worsen, associated with structural deformities of the verterbra or intervertebral disc, frequently has a fixed angle of trunk rotation

26

What does idiopathic scoliosis infer?

the scoliosis is unique to the individual, it has no known cause, unknown etiology

27

Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis

right thoracic, females over 6 years old, 12% - 21% incidence

28

Identity the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

right thoracic or right thoracic and left lumbar, females, 80% incidence

29

What is the relationship between curve deviation, incidence, and curve worsening?

the greater the deviation, the lower the incidence, and the more likely to worsen

30

Identity the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of infantile idiopathic scoliosis.

left thoracic, male, less than 1% incidence