Flashcards in Spinal 2 Exam 2 Wk 3 Deck (30):
What joint is formed between the odontoid process ossification centers and the centrum of C2?
the subdental synchondrosis
What is the name given to the condition in which the joint formed between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 persists beyond age 7?
What is the name given to the joint formed between the tip of the dens and the odentoid process centers of ossification?
tip of the dens synchondrosis
If the joint formed between the tip of the dens and odontoid process centers of ossification persists beyond age 12, what is the condition called?
What is the gender bias suggested in dorsalization of C7?
What C7 facet orientation changes may accompany cervicalization?
the inferior articular facet may change from forward, medial, and downward to forward, lateral, and downward; the superior articular facet is unchanged
What is the gender bias associated with dorsalization of L1?
males are two to three times more affected
What T12 facet orientation changes may accompany lumbarization?
the superior articular facet may change from flat, back, upward, and lateral to concave, back, upward, and medial; the inferior articular facet is unchanged
What is characteristic of lumbarization of S1?
the failure of synostosis between S1 and S2, squaring of the vertebral body of S1 and flaring of the sacral ala
Which segment demonstrates the greatest morphological variation along the spine?
What is the traditional time of appearance of the cervical curve said to be?
during the last trimester in utero
What development events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical curve?
centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in the brain musculature attaching the skull, cervical region, and upper thorax together develops the head is held upright the intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior
What is the name given to the integration of visual and motor pathways associated with holding the head erect?
the righting reflex
What is the location for the cervical kyhosis?
between occiput and C1
What infant activities are associated with the development of the lumbar curve?
crawling and walking
What developments events are indicated in the formation of the adult lumbar curve?
crawling will cause the abdomen to put tension on the lumbar region and pulls it forward muscle development is promoted to compensate for the swayback of the lumbars intervertebral disc height will become greater compared to posterior walking will further promote muscle and intervertebral disc development
What is the gender bias associated with lumbar curve convexity?
females have a greater convexity of the lumbar curve
What is the relationship between curve direction and handedness?
a right handed person has a high probability for a right thoracic, left lumbar curve combination
What clinical examples of abnormal curvatures along the vertebral column were stressed in class?
military neck, humpback or hunchback, and swayback
What are the curve classifications for military neck?
a kyphosis or hypolordotic curve
What are the curve classifications for swayback?
a lordosis or hyperlordic curve
What is the more complete, accepted definition of scoliosis?
an abnormal lateral curve coupled with axial rotation
What is the radiological test for skeletal maturity?
the Risser sign, an indication of bone maturity in the iliac apophysis
What are the classifications of scoliosis according to the Scoliosis Research Society?
magnitude, location, direction, etiology, and structural/non-structural
What is structural scoliosis?
a more radical form of scoliosis, it may worsen, associated with structural deformities of the verterbra or intervertebral disc, frequently has a fixed angle of trunk rotation
What does idiopathic scoliosis infer?
the scoliosis is unique to the individual, it has no known cause, unknown etiology
Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis
right thoracic, females over 6 years old, 12% - 21% incidence
Identity the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
right thoracic or right thoracic and left lumbar, females, 80% incidence
What is the relationship between curve deviation, incidence, and curve worsening?
the greater the deviation, the lower the incidence, and the more likely to worsen