Spinal Cord And Spinal Nerves - Control Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Spinal Cord And Spinal Nerves - Control Deck (83):
1

How many cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal vertebrae are there?

- cervical - 7
- thoracic - 12
- lumbar - 5
- sacral - 5
- coccygeal - 1

2

How many coccygeal spinal nerves are there?

1

3

How many cervical spinal nerves are there?

8

4

What is the nerve root of the phrenic nerve?

C3,4,5 keeps the diaphragm alive.

5

How many spinal cord segments are there?

31

6

How many thoracic spinal nerves are there?

12

7

How many lumbar spinal nerves are there?

5

8

How many sacral spinal nerves are there?

5

9

How many coccygeal spinal nerves are there?

1

10

How many segmental spinal nerves does each segment give rise to?

1 pair

11

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?

31 pairs

12

Where do spinal nerves lie in the cervical region?

Above the vertebra

13

Where do the spinal nerves lie in relation to the thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal vertebrae?

Below the vertebra

14

Where does spinal nerve C1 emerge?

Between the skull and C1 vertebra

15

Where do the spinal nerves C2 to C7 emerge?

Superior to pedicles

16

Where does the spinal nerve C8 emerge?

Inferior to Pedicles of C8 vertebra

17

Where do the spinal nerves T1 to Co emerge?

Inferior to the Pedicles of their respective vertebrae

18

How many vertebra does the vertebral column contain?

30

19

What is a laminectomy?

cut through the lamina to look into the vertebral column

20

What is the Cauda equine?

cluster of rootlets

21

what is the conus medullaris?

inferior tip of the spinal cord - L1/2 - termination of spinal cord

22

what is the dorsal rootlet?

a very small series of rootlets that go to a specify segment

23

What does the cervical enlargement contain? (what plexus?

the brachial plexus

24

What types of information does the dorsal rootlet contain?

sensory information

25

What is the filum terminale?

Extensions of Pia mater - 1 fine strand attaches to the coccyx and is a remnant of the developing spinal cord

26

What does the lumbar enlargement accommodate?

sciatic nerve

27

What are dura, arachnoid and pia mater?

meninges that surround the spinal cord

28

What is dura mater?

tough, fibrous sleeve separated from bone by fat filled epidural (extra) space.

29

How many layers of dura mater are there?

1

30

What is arachnoid mater?

Thin, delicate layer pressed against dura by CSF

31

What is Pia mater?

thin layer attached to surface of cord

32

what does pia mater form?

denticulate ligaments

33

How does CSF enter the subarachnoid space?

by leaving the median and lateral apertures of the ventricular system

34

What layer is the spinal cord made up of?

meningeal layer ONLY

35

How many layers of dura surround the spinal cord?

a single layer

36

What does the periosteal layer in the skull become as it leaves the skull?

Becomes part of the periosteum of the skull

37

When is an epidural used?

during child birth

38

What does the sub -arachnoid space push against?

the arachnoid mater running on the underside of the dura mater

39

Which space does an epidural go into?

epidural space

40

Does an epidural space run through the dura mater?

no

41

Does a spinal anaesthetic pass through the dura mater?

yes

42

What is the denticulate ligament?

extensions of pia mater which attach to the lateral walls of the vertebral canal for stability.

43

What types of fibres do ventral roots contain?

motor fibres and efferent fibres thate sit the spinal cord.

44

What are ganglion/ganglia?

collection of cell bodies

45

What does the lumbar cistern not contain?

the spinal cord

46

where is the lumbar cistern?

from the conus medullaris (L1/2) to S2.

47

What does the lumbar cistern contain? (3)

1. CSF
2. Filum terminale
3. Cauda equina

48

What rootlets are in the caudal equina?

dorsal and ventral roots of lower lumbar, sacral and cocygeal segmental spinal nerves.

49

What happens to nerve roots when a needle is inserted during a lumbar puncture?

The nerve roots move out of the way - that is why a lumbar puncture is ideal

50

What is the lumbar cistern a good entry for?

Lumbar puncture

51

How does the spinal cord change in length from foetus to birth to adult life?

The spinal cord straightens out.

Foetus - the vertebral canal grows faster than the spinal cord hence the spinal cord is shorter

Birth - finishes at L3

Adult - L1/2

52

Where does the spinal cord receive arterial blood supply from?

unpaired anterior spinal arteries

paired posterior spinal arteries

53

Where do the anterior and posterior spinal arteries arise from?

vertebral artery

54

what are the vertebral arteries supported by along the length of the spinal cord?

- segmental medullary arteries
- radicular arteries

55

What spinal branch comes off at the neck?

vertebral artery

56

What spinal branch comes off in the thorax?

posterior intercostal artery

57

what spinal branch comes off the abdomen?

lumbar

58

What spinal branch comes off the pelvis?

lateral sacral artery

59

What spinal branches do you need to know?

1. anterior segmental medullary artery
2. posterior intercostal artery
3. posterior dorsal branch
4. posteior intercostal artery
5. posterior spinal artery
6. anterior spinal artery

60

What is contained with in grey matter (pathways) and what colour is it no a transverse section?

Cell bodies of ascending and descending pathways.

Black

61

What does white matter contain?

axons and tracts - long pathways

62

How do the dorsal grey horn and ventral grey horn span across the transverse section of the spinal cord?

across the entire length

63

What type of nerves does the lateral grey horn contain?

autonomic nerves

64

What do you need to know in regards to the transverse section of the spinal cord?

1. lateral, ventral, dorsal grey horn
2. ventral white commissure
3. lateral, ventral and dorsal white column

65

Where is the lateral grey horn present (what levels of vertebrae)?

T1-L2 and S2-S4

66

What forms the epineurium?

spinal nerves leaving the vertebral canal taking the meningeal covering with it

67

What is the epineurium?

a protective outer sheath of connective tissue

68

What happens to white matter as it ascends the spinal cord?

it increases

69

When does the ventral horn enlarge?

It enlarges where motor fibres to limbs arise - cervical and lumbar enlargements

70

Above which segment are 2 dorsal columns on each side of the midline of the transverse section of the spinal cord?

above T6

71

What are the 2 dorsal columns on either side of the midline above T6?

Gracile fascicle medially

Cuneate fascicle laterally

2 regions of white matter

72

What does a fascicle contain?

white matter - tracts and axons

73

What does the gracile fascicle relate to?

Lower limbs - gracilis muscle

74

What does the cuneate fascicle relate to?

Upper limbs

75

Is the spinal grey matter specialised?

Yes

76

What nuclei is the spinal grey matter site of?

sensory or motor nuclei

77

Is the dorsal column ipsilateral or contralateral?

ipsilateral

78

What does the dorsal column do?

position sense

vibration sense

79

What does the lateral corticospinal tract do?

voluntary movement on the right

80

What is the ventral corticospinal tract involved in?

voluntary movement on the right

81

What is the spinothalamic tract involved in?

pain, light touch and temp

82

Is the spinothalamic tract ipsilateral or contralateral?

Contralateral

83

Are the ascending and descending tracts present on both sides of the spinal cord?

yes