Flashcards in Spinal Cord I and II Deck (33):
The disk that surrounds the nucleus pulposus is called the _____________.
What bony process connects the vertebral arch to the vertebral body?
Differentiate myelopathy and radiculopathy.
Myelopathy = impingement of the central part of the spinal cord
Radiculopathy = impingement of the nerve roots emerging from the spine
What is a polyradiculopathy?
A condition in which the cauda equina is impinged (either by narrowing or other)
Age-related use can result in hypertrophy of the ___________.
Describe Lhemitte's sign.
A "lightning bolt" sensation when the chin is elevated
Spurling's sign results from ______________.
narrowing of the cervical foramina; twisting the neck leads to pinching of the roots of the brachial plexus
The spinal cord ends at about vertebra _______.
Where do the spinal arteries arise?
The vertebral arteries
The radicular arteries stem from the __________.
Damage to the __________ can lead to increased urinary urgency.
Damage to the spinal cord above S2-S4 can lead to ___________.
What three thoracic/abdominal dermatomes do we need to know?
What is the normal response to stroking the bottom of the foot?
The toes are supposed to curl down; if they curl up – in an extensor response – then that is evidence of hyperreflexia (called Babinski's sign)
Other than meningiomas, what masses can present on the edges spine?
Schwannomas on the cauda equina
Differentiate cardiogenic shock and neurogenic shock.
Both result in insufficient oxygen delivery to tissues, but neurogenic shock results from failure of sympathetic tone leading to hypotension while cardiogenic shock results from insufficient cardiac output.
Describe the difference in intramedullary spinal cord dysfunction presentation and extramedullary spinal cord dysfunction.
Intramedullary: early bladder problems; late pain problems
Extramedullary: early pain and UMN issues; late bladder problems
What dermatomes cover the sensation of the feet?
L4: big toe, medial side of foot
L5: 3rd and 4th digits, middle of foot
S1: 5th digit, lateral side of foot
(Like your favorite dys-toe-pian sci-fi novel: Footenheit 451.)
Describe the grading of muscle strength.
0/5: no movement
1/5: flicker but no movement
2/5: movement possible, but not against gravity
3/5: movement against gravity but not resistance
4/5: movement possible against some resistance
5/5: normal movement
Describe the rating system for reflexes.
0: no reflex
1: trace of reflex
4: nonsustained clonus
5: sustained clonus
What spinal tracts are affected by B12 deficiency?
Posterior columns and lateral corticospinal tract (posterolateral disorder... PLease eat more animal products)
What are two disorders that are purely anterior horn UMN?
Spinal muscular atrophy and polio
What sensations will be preserved in those with occlusion of the anterior spinal artery?
Vibration/fine touch sensation
Cervical stenosis results most often in ____________.
UMN symptoms with loss of bladder control
The first reflexes to reappear after an SCI are the ___________.
polysynaptic ones (like the bulbocavernosus reflex)
Describe the sensory innervation of the arm.
Lateral bicep: C5
Lateral forearm and hand: C6
Middle finger: C7
Medial hand: C8
Medial forearm: T1
Medial bicep: T2
What root provides motor innervation to the deltoid and infraspinatus?
The biceps receives its innervation from the _______ roots.
The triceps receives innervation from the ______ root.
If you lost sensation on your heel, what root might that be?
Hip flexion is mediated by __________.
Big toe extension, foot eversion and inversion, and dorsiflexion are what nerve root?