Spinal Cords with Spinal Nerves Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Spinal Cords with Spinal Nerves Deck (112):
1

what are the 2 functions of the spinal cord

pathway for sensory and motor impulses

reflexes

2

what are the quickest reations to a stimulus

reflexes

3

protective structures of spinal cord

vertebral column
meninges
cerbral spinal fluid

4

is the brain directly involved with reflexes

no

5

what are the fibers on the side that hold the spinal chord from bouncing around

denticulate ligament

6

characteristics of the spinal cord

cervical enlargement
lumber enlargement
conus medullaris
filum terminale
cauda equina

7

conus medullaris

official end of the spinal cord

8

what is the official end of the spinal cord

conus medullaris

9

filum terminal

part of pia holds to coccyx to hold spinal chord

10

what anchors the conus medullaris to coccyx

filum terminal

11

what holds the spinal cord in place

denticulate ligament

12

what happens at T12-L1

conus medullaris

13

horsetail

cauda equina

14

what is the point where the spind cord ends and the nerves split

cauda equina

15

what are the five parts the spinal cord is divided into

cervical
thoracic
lumbar
sacral
coccygeal

16

what are the loose spinal nerves at the end of conus medullaris that looks like a horse tail called

cauda equina

17

where do the meninges stop

conus medullaris

18

how many cervical spinal nerves are there

8

19

how many thoracic nerves are there

12

20

how many lumbar nerves are there

5

21

how many sacral nerves are there

5

22

how many coccygeal nerves are there

1

23

what are the formal spinal nerves

cervical
thoracic

24

what spinal nerves are part of the cauda equina

lumbar
sacral
coccygeal

25

in the spinal cord, what is on the outside and what is on the inside

inner - gray
outer- white

26

the gray matter forms what in the spinal cord

forms the horns (butterfly)

27

white matter forms what in the spinal cord

tracts and funiculi

28

where are the cell bodies in the posterior horn

dorsal root ganglia

29

what houses the cell bodies of somatic motor neurons

anterior horns

30

lateral horns hold what kind of neurons

autonomic motor neurons

31

what holds the sensory neurons

posterior horns

32

where does the automic neurons innervate

cardia, smooth muscle, and glands

33

where do the motor neurons innervate to

skeletal muscle

34

within the gray matter are function groups of neuron cell bodies called

nuclei

35

sensory nuclei in the posterior horns contain cell bodies of what

somatic sensory nuclei
visceral sensory nuclei

36

motor nuclei in the anterior horns contain

somatic motor nuclei

37

autonomic motor nuclei are where

in the lateral horns

38

the white matter of the spinal cord is external to the gray matter and the regions they are divided into are called

funiculus

39

the anterior funiculi are interconnected by the

white commissurer

40

the axons within each funiculus are organized into

tracts

41

the spinal nerves contain connective tissue wrappings called

endoneurium
perineurium
epineurium

42

axon + associated glial cells for the nerve fiber =

nerve

43

covering around entire nerve

epineurium

44

coverin around each fascicle

perineurium

45

covering around each axon

endoneurium

46

epineurium

around entire nerve

47

perineurium

around each fascicle

48

endoneurium

around each axon

49

what happens in lateral horns

autonomic

50

what happens in posterior horns

sensory

51

what happens in anterior horns

somatic

52

where do the cell bodies of the motor axons arise from

cell bodies in the anterior and lateral horns in spinal cord

53

if going away from spinal cord, rootlets lead to what

the root

54

rootlets lead to root, and the root breaks into a front and back. what it is called

ramus

55

where is the anterior ramus

trunk of spinal nerve

56

what is the anterior ramus split into

sensory and anterior motor

57

posterior roots contain

sensory axons ONLY

58

the cell bodies of the sensory axons arise from cell bodies in where

the posterior root ganglioin

59

where is the posterior root ganglion attached to

posterior root

60

where the spinal roots come together, they are called

the trunk of spinal nerve

61

what does the spinal nerve contain

both sensory axons

62

after leaving the intervertebral foramen, a typical spinal nerve splits into branches called

rami

63

what is the smaller of the two branches and innervates the deep muscles of the back and the skin of the back

posterior ramus

64

what is the larger of the two main branch of the spinal never

anterior ramus

65

where does the anterior ramus innervate to

anterior and lateral portions of the trunk and the upper and lower limbs

66

what does the posterior rami carry

motor to back muscles and skin of back

67

what's the difference between posterior trunk and posterior rami

posterior trunk = sensory

posterior rami = motor

68

what extends between the spinal nerve and a sympathetic trunk

rami communicantes

69

when the nerves exit the vertebra and come together it's called a what

plexa

70

how many plexi do we have

4

71

where does the plexa come off of

anterior ramus

72

what is inside the rami communicates

part of the autonomic sympathetic nervous system

73

dermatomes

area of skin that is supplied by a branch of a spinal nerve

74

dermatomes are involved in what

referred pain

75

referred pain

pain isn't there but brain can't differentiate or tell the difference in nerves

76

what is a network of interweaving anterior rami of spinal nerves

nerve plexus

77

what rami of most spinal nerves form nerve plexuses on both sides of the body

anterior rami

78

what are the 4 plexus

cervical plexus
brachial plexus
lumbar plexus
sacral plexus

79

what are the anterior rami that travel in intercostal spaces between adjacent ribs

intercostal spaces

80

what do we use costsal groove for

to tell right from left

81

why do you have a brachial plexus and not a thoracic plexus

because intercostal nerves do not form plexuses

82

what is the route of when nerves exits vertebra

rami (spinal root)
trunk
plexus (4)
cord
nerve branch

83

how does the anterior rami get around to the front of the ribs

using costal groove

84

what is an involuntary response to a stimulus

reflex

85

what are the two types of reflex

polysnaptic
monosynaptic

86

what does a reflex do for the body

a reflex is a way of saving the body

87

what kind of reaction is involved with a reflex

automatic involuntary reaction with skeletal muscle

88

what is the pathway of a single reflex

reflex arc

89

the reflex are may be

ipsilateral or contralateral

90

pathway of reflex

begins with sensory recepter
communicates with CNS in spinal cord where it decides mono or polysynaptic
ends with peripheral effector

91

what is the synapse for sensory

in dorsal root ganglia

92

is the brain directly involved with reflexes

no

93

ipsilateral

when both the receptor and effector organs are on the same side

94

contralateral

when sensory impulses from a receptor cross over through the spinal cord to activate effector organs on the opposite side

95

if there are 2 neurons involved in a reflex, what kind of reaction are we dealing with

monosynaptic

96

if there are more than 2 neurons involved in a reflex, what is the reaction called?

polysynaptic

97

prime mover is also known as

agonist

98

prime mover/agonist

muscle doing action

99

antagonist

apposing muscle (IPSP)

100

what is the muscle that helps agonist

synergist

101

when there is direct communication between sensory and motor neuron, what kind of reflex is it

monosynaptic

102

when interneuron facilitates sensory motor communication, what reflex is it

polysynaptic

103

withdrawal reflex is an example or what kind of reflex

polysynaptic reflex arc

104

a stretch reflex is an example of what reflex

monosynaptic reflex arc

105

golgi tendon reflex is similar to

stretch reflex

monosynaptic

106

the part of the sensory system that goes to the tendon is called what

golgi tendon

107

where do muscle dendrites attach

one end goes to cell
other end goes to tendon

108

a muscle contraction that stimulates sensory nerve impulses that travel to the CNS is called what

golgi tendon reflex

109

inner neuron is also known as an

association neuron

110

golgi tendon

sensory in tendons to make sure stretching does not occur

ex: ipsalateral

111

muscle spindal fiber

make sure stretching of muscle does not occur

112

what is the link between the brain and the rest of the body

spinal cord