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Flashcards in Spine Facts Deck (24):
1

annulus fibrosis

composed of type I collagen, water, and proteoglycans

characterized by extensibility and tensile strength

high collagen / low proteoglycan ratio (low % dry weight of proteoglycans) 

2

nucleus pulposus

composed of type II collagen, water, and proteoglycans

characterized by compressibility


low collagen / high proteoglycan ratio (high % dry weight of proteoglycans)


proteoglycans interact with water and resist compression

a hydrated gel due to high polysacharide content and high water content (88%)

3

Disc aging - DECREASES (5)

nutritional transport

water content
absolute number of viable cells
proteoglycans
pH

4

correlation between the angle of trunk rotation and the radiographic Cobb angle is considered

linear

5

Disc aging - collagen changes

overall conversion to fibrocartilage

no change in absolute quantity of collagen

collagen crosslinking increases

6

Disc aging - INCREASES (3)

keratin sulfate to chondroitin sulfate ratio
lactate
degredative enzyme activity

7

Which of the following is considered a normal age-related change in the intervertebral disk in the elderly?

 

Decreased water content

8

The axial skeleton is derived from what embryonic site?

 

Sclerotome of the somites

9

nucleus pulposus nutrition

 diffusion through pores in the endplates


annulus is not porous enough to allow diffusion

10

innervation to superficial fibers of annulus

dorsal root ganglion gives rise to the sinuvertebral nerve

11

Energy supply for chondrocyte-like cells of nucleus pulposus?

: The intervertebral disk is an avascular structure in the adult. Nucleus pulposus cells have a critical need for glucose because they obtain their energy primarily by glycolysis, even in the absence of oxygen.

Remember:  diffusion through end-plates

12

main offender among inflammatory modulators
potentially responsible for nerve root pain in the setting of a herniated disk

TNF-alpha

13

TENS units mechanism

superficial electrical stimulation

This electrical stimulation induces analgesia via inhibitory effects at the spinal cord level. The stimulation of small myelinated afferent fibers produces a presynaptic inhibition of the nociceptive transmission
via unmyelinated C fibers
, thus decreasing the transmission of pain stimuli.

14

Which of the following levels of the spine is most frequently involved in ossification of the
posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL)? 

OPLL is a cause of spinal stenosis and myelopathy most frequently seen in the Asian population but affects other populations as well. Men are affected more often than
women and the peak age at onset is in the sixth decade of life. It is often associated with other conditions such as diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and ankylosing spondylitis. The levels most frequently involved are C4, C5, and C6. More than 95% of the
ossification is localized in the cervical spine.

15

function with C1-C3 SCI

- Ventilator dependent with limited talking.
- Electric wheelchair with head or chin control

16

function with C3-C4 SCI

- Initially ventilator dependent, but can become independent
- Electric wheelchair with head or chin control

17

function with C5 SCI

 Independent ADL’s; electric wheelchair with hand control

18

function with C6 SCI

 Independent living; manual wheelchair with sliding board transfers, can drive a car with manual controls

19

function with C7 SCI

Daily use of a manual wheelchair with independent transfers

20

Normal?

Q image thumb

Yes

5 mm odointoid tip = basilar invag

(Chamberlain line)

21

body positions associated with the highest intradiskal pressure

sitting leaning forward

22

notochord function

transient axis of support, provides for the initial axis of orientation of the developing embryo, and most importantly, plays a vital role in the induction of the tissues that eventually form the vertebral column

23

dish vs as

A image thumb
24

dish vs as vs djd radiograph

A image thumb