Flashcards in Stage Four Deck (25):
What is stage four?
Present the data collected in appropriate forms
What are graphical forms of data presentation?
- line and bar
- circular and rose
What are statistical mapping forms?
- isoline maps
- dot maps
- proportional symbols
- flow maps
Advantages of bar graphs?
- can be used to make comparisons between two data sets
- a range of data can be shown on one graph, particularly if the bars are divided
- easy to interpret trends, patterns and anomalies
Disadvantages of bar graphs?
- width of bar can mislead over the value represented but the bar
- gaps should be left otherwise it is considered a histogram
- can only be used for discontinuous data
Advantages of line graphs?
- useful for showing continuous data as it changes over space or time
- easy to identify trends
Disadvantages of line graphs?
- can only be used to show continuous data
Advantages of pie charts?
- clearly shows the relative contribution of each category
Disadvantages of pie charts?
- actual data values are hard to determine because the data is shown as a % of a whole
- limited number of categories can be shown otherwise the chart becomes difficult to interpret
Advantages of scatter graphs?
- clearly shows the relationship between two variables
- shows the direction and strength of the relationship
- allows you to identify anomalies
- if x axis is distance the spatial location can be shown
Disadvantages of scatter graphs?
- can only be used to show the relationship between two variables
- number of observations is limited
- visual info can be misleading
Advantages of triangle graphs?
- provides a visual assessment of the relationship between 3 variables
- offer a method of classifying data according to each variable
- clearly shows dominant characteristic
Disadvantage of triangle graphs?
- data usually need to be converted to a %
- can only be used for 3 variables
- can be difficult to interpret
- can be difficult to construct
Advantages of kite diagram
- clear visual representation of data
- useful for showing spatial changes
- easy to compare between different locations
Disadvantage of kite diagrams
- can be difficult to interpret
- only useful if data is converted to a %
- difficult to construct
Advantages of chloropleth mapping
- mode classes easily identifies
- patterns easy to spot = location as well as value
- good way of data reduction
- simple to construct one key is made
- visually clear and easy to interpret
Disadvantages of chloropleth mapping
- choosing key classes introduces bias
- more classes = more representation hover more complicates key meaning that often the key contains fewer, large classes which misses variations
- time consuming
- hides internal distribution
- implies vales change at boundaries
- larger unit areas dominate the map
Advantages of dot mapping
- provides a great visual representation of data
- spatial distribution of data shown accurately
- data is not interrupted by boundaries (regional or international)
- possible to read of total value by counting the dots
Disadvantages of dot mapping
- time consuming to construct
- prior knowledge of factors affecting distribution of characteristics of needed for the map to be accurate
- map can be misleading bc it implies the location of the dot is the location of the characteristic
- high density areas often result in dots merging together which makes it difficult to read off values
What are isoline maps?
Used to show distributions that have a continuous pattern over space. Isoline are lines that join with an equal value
Advantages of isoline maps?
- clear visual rep
- distance between isolines can be used to determine gradient of change over space
- interpolation can be used to predict values for areas where there are gaps in data
Disadvantages of isoline maps?
- requires large amounts of data which is collected at specific points
- can only be used to show characteristics that change continuously over space
- using interpolation can be inaccurate as it assumes that there is a gradual change between data locations
What is flowline mapping?
Gives an impression of movement between places
Advantages of flowline mapping?
- easy to construct when data is varied without wide extremes
- easy to interpret
- provides clear visual representation of data
- non routed maps give an impression of the location of movement
- can show movement and direction on the same map