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Flashcards in Stage Four Deck (25):

What is stage four?

Present the data collected in appropriate forms


What are graphical forms of data presentation?

- line and bar
-pie chart
- circular and rose
- kite
- triangular


What are statistical mapping forms?

- chloropleth
- isoline maps
- dot maps
- proportional symbols
- flow maps


Advantages of bar graphs?

- can be used to make comparisons between two data sets
- a range of data can be shown on one graph, particularly if the bars are divided
- easy to interpret trends, patterns and anomalies


Disadvantages of bar graphs?

- width of bar can mislead over the value represented but the bar
- gaps should be left otherwise it is considered a histogram
- can only be used for discontinuous data


Advantages of line graphs?

- useful for showing continuous data as it changes over space or time
- easy to identify trends


Disadvantages of line graphs?

- can only be used to show continuous data


Advantages of pie charts?

- clearly shows the relative contribution of each category


Disadvantages of pie charts?

- actual data values are hard to determine because the data is shown as a % of a whole
- limited number of categories can be shown otherwise the chart becomes difficult to interpret


Advantages of scatter graphs?

- clearly shows the relationship between two variables
- shows the direction and strength of the relationship
- allows you to identify anomalies
- if x axis is distance the spatial location can be shown


Disadvantages of scatter graphs?

- can only be used to show the relationship between two variables
- number of observations is limited
- visual info can be misleading


Advantages of triangle graphs?

- provides a visual assessment of the relationship between 3 variables
- offer a method of classifying data according to each variable
- clearly shows dominant characteristic


Disadvantage of triangle graphs?

- data usually need to be converted to a %
- can only be used for 3 variables
- can be difficult to interpret
- can be difficult to construct


Advantages of kite diagram

- clear visual representation of data
- useful for showing spatial changes
- easy to compare between different locations


Disadvantage of kite diagrams

- can be difficult to interpret
- only useful if data is converted to a %
- difficult to construct


Advantages of chloropleth mapping

- mode classes easily identifies
- patterns easy to spot = location as well as value
- good way of data reduction
- simple to construct one key is made
- visually clear and easy to interpret


Disadvantages of chloropleth mapping

- choosing key classes introduces bias
- more classes = more representation hover more complicates key meaning that often the key contains fewer, large classes which misses variations
- time consuming
- hides internal distribution
- implies vales change at boundaries
- larger unit areas dominate the map


Advantages of dot mapping

- provides a great visual representation of data
- spatial distribution of data shown accurately
- data is not interrupted by boundaries (regional or international)
- possible to read of total value by counting the dots


Disadvantages of dot mapping

- time consuming to construct
- prior knowledge of factors affecting distribution of characteristics of needed for the map to be accurate
- map can be misleading bc it implies the location of the dot is the location of the characteristic
- high density areas often result in dots merging together which makes it difficult to read off values


What are isoline maps?

Used to show distributions that have a continuous pattern over space. Isoline are lines that join with an equal value


Advantages of isoline maps?

- clear visual rep
- distance between isolines can be used to determine gradient of change over space
- interpolation can be used to predict values for areas where there are gaps in data


Disadvantages of isoline maps?

- requires large amounts of data which is collected at specific points
- can only be used to show characteristics that change continuously over space
- using interpolation can be inaccurate as it assumes that there is a gradual change between data locations


What is flowline mapping?

Gives an impression of movement between places


Advantages of flowline mapping?

- easy to construct when data is varied without wide extremes
- easy to interpret
- provides clear visual representation of data
- non routed maps give an impression of the location of movement
- can show movement and direction on the same map


Disadvantages of flowline mapping?

- difficult to construct when data has wide extremes
- geometric scales for large scales can be hard to interpret
- can only be used then the data involves movement
- non routed maps are particularly generalised